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Principles of Disease > Tumour Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Tumour Pathology Deck (173)
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1

What is a tumour (neoplasm)

Abnormal growing mass of tissue
It has uncoordinated growth when compared to surrounding tissue

2

How will the removal of a stimulus causing the tumour affect its growth

It may continue to grow due to the irreversible change caused

3

What two groups of tumours are there

Benign
Malignant (cancer)

4

What are malignant tumours

Tumours that can invade into adjacent tissue and metastasise (spread) and grow at other sites with the body

5

State two factors which can cause cancer

Genetics
Environmental factors

6

What are the 5 most common types of cancer

Breast
Lung
Prostate
Colon
Melanoma

7

Why is tumour classification important

So we can understand tumour behaviour
So we can determine the probable outcome (prognosis)
For treatment

8

What is tumour classification based on

Tissue of origin
Whether the tumour is benign or malignant

9

Which type of tissues can tumours originate from

Epithelium
Connective tissue (mesenchyme)
Blood
Lymphoid tissue
Melanocytes
Neural tissue
Germ cells (ovary/testis)

10

What are the two main types of epithelial tumours

Glandular
Squamous

11

What are benign and malignant glandular epithelial tumours known as

Benign - Adenoma
Malignant - Adenocarcinoma

12

What are benign and malignant squamous epithelial tumours known as

Benign - Squamous papilloma
Malignant - Squamous carcinoma

13

In epithelial tumour nomenclature what do the benign and malignant tumours normally end in

Benign - oma
Malignant - carcinoma

14

What type of connective tissue tumours can occur

Bone
Fat
Fibrous tissue

15

What is a benign and malignant bone tumour known as

Benign - Osteoma
Malignant - Osteo-sarcoma

16

What is a benign and malignant fat tumour known as

Benign - Lipoma
Malignant - Lipo-sarcoma

17

What is a benign and malignant fibrous tissue tumour known as

Benign - Fibroma
Malignant - Fibro-sarcoma

18

In connective tissue tumour nomenclature what do malignant tumours normally end in

Sarcoma

19

What is a malignant WBC tumour known as

Leukaemia

20

What is a malignant lymphoid tissue tumour known as

Lymphoma

21

What is a benign melanocyte tumour known as

Naevus

22

What is a malignant melanocyte tumour known as

Melanoma

23

What is a tumour in the central nervous system known as

Astrocytoma

24

What is a tumour in the peripheral nervous tissue known as

Schwannoma

25

What are germ cell tumours known as

Teratomas

26

What is a teratoma composed of

Various tissues
Develops in ovaries/testies

27

Where are teratomas normally benign and where are they malignant

Benign - Ovaries
Malignant - Testies

28

What are the features of benign tumours

Non-invasive growth pattern
Normally encapsulated
No evidence of invasion
No metastases
Cells similar to normal
Function similar to normal tissue
Rarely cause death
Are well-differentiated

29

What are the features of malignant tumours

Invasive growth patterns
No capsule (or capsule breached by tumour cells)
Abnormal cells
Loss of normal function
Often evidence of spread of cancer
Cancers often poorly differentiated
Frequently cause death

30

State some properties of cancer cells

Loss of tumour suppressor genes
Gain the function of oncogenes
Altered cellular function
Abnormal morphology
Cells capable of independent growth