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Flashcards in Principles of Immunisation Deck (46)
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1

What can adaptive immunity be referred to as

Acquired immunity

2

What are the advantages of passive immunity

Provides immediate protection
Acts as a quick fix

3

What are the disadvantages of passive immunity

No immunological memory
May cause serum sickness
Graft (cell graft) vs host disease

4

What is serum sickness

The incoming antibody is recognised as a foreign antigen by the recipient and results in anaphylaxis

5

What is graft vs host disease

The incoming immune cells reject the recipient

6

Describe the process of passive immunity

Serum (antbodies) from immune individual administered to uninfected individual
infection challenged by serum admiistered

7

Does passive immunity provide specificity

Yes

8

Describe the process of active immunity

Exposure to microbial antigen through a vaccine or infection
Infection challenged over days or weeks

9

What does active immunity provide

Specificity
Immunological memory

10

What is an example of natural passive immunity

Maternal immunoglobulins transferred to the foetus or neonate naturally using a specialised mechanism involving neonatal Fc receptors

11

What is an example of artificial passive immunity

The passive infusion of antibodies specific for the toxin (e.g. snake/spider bites or scorpion/fish stings)

Post-exposure prophylaxis

12

How does natural active immunity occur

Through exposure or infection

13

How does artificial active immunity occur

Through vaccination

14

Define vaccination

Administration of antigenic material (vaccine) to stimulate an individual’s immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen

15

What are common diseases vaccinated against

Measles
Mumps
Rubella

16

What can measles result in

Rash

17

What can mumps lead to

Meningitis

18

Name the types of active immunisation vaccines available

Killed (inactivated) whole organism
Live attenuated whole organism
Subunit (purified antigen) vaccine
Toxoid (modified inactivated toxin)

19

Describe the killed (inactivated) whole organism vaccine

The target organism (e.g. polio) is killed

Viruses must be effectively heat killed as any live virus can result in vaccine-related disease

20

What are the advantages and disadvantages of killed (inactivated) whole organism vaccines

Effective and relatively easy to manufacture

Booster shots likely to be required

21

Give examples of killed (inactivated) whole organism vaccines

Whole-cell pertussis (wP)
Inactivated polio virus (IPV)

22

Describe live attenuated whole organism vaccines

An avirulent strain of the target organism is isolated to stimulate the natural infection causing it to revert back to the virulent form

23

What are the advantages and disadvantages of live attenuated whole organism

Very powerful method
Better than killed whole organism vaccine

Requires vaccination

24

Give examples of live attenuated whole organism

TB (BCG)
Measles
Rotavirus
Yellow fever
Oral polio vaccine (OPV)

25

Describe subunit (purified antigen) vaccines

Uses recombinant proteins
Therefore it introduces the antigen to the immune system but not the viral particles

26

What are the advantages and disadvantages of subunit (purified antigen) vaccines

Very safe
Easy to standardise

Not very immunogenic without an effective adjuvant

27

Give examples of subunit (purified antigen) vaccines

Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)
Human papilloma virus (HPV) proteins
Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib)

28

Describe toxoid (modified inactivated toxin) vaccines

The toxin is treated with formalin so the toxoid can retain antigenicity with no toxin activity

29

What are the disadvantages of toxoid (modified inactivated toxin) vaccines

It only provides immunity against the toxin and not the organism that produces it

30

Give examples of toxoid (modified inactivated toxin) vaccines

Tetanus toxoid (TT)
Diphtheria toxoid