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Flashcards in Storing and Using Genetic Information Deck (68)
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1

What is a phenotype

A outward, physical manifestation of organism

2

What is a genotype

The full hereditary information of organism (even if not expressed)

3

Why are proteins all functionally different

Due to their structure

4

What is protein structure dependent on

The primary structure and therefore the specific sequence of amino acids

5

What is the molecular structure of DNA

It is a chain of nucleotide monomers

6

What does each nucleotide contain

Sugar
Base
Phosphate group

7

What is the sugar on DNA called

2' - deoxyribose

8

What shape do DNA molecules form

Double helix

9

What is the backbone of DNA

Sugar phosphate

10

How many bases are there for every full turn of the helix in DNA

10

11

Do the polynucleotide chains run parallel or anti-parallel to each other

Anti-parallel
One runs 5' to 3' while the other runs 3' to 5'

12

How does the polynucleotide chains running anti-parallel to each other affect the double helix

It allows it to remain stable

13

What does the way the double helix is wound result in

Major groove
Minor groove

14

In which groove are many binding sites found

Major

15

Why are the grooves formed important in DNA

For the interaction of proteins with the DNA molecule

16

Is the double helix, right or left handed

Right handed

17

What are the bases in DNA

Adenine
Cytosine
Guanine
Thymine

18

How to the bases pair in DNA

A-T
C-G

19

Which base is switched in RNA

Thymine becomes Uracil

20

How many bonds are found between A-T

2 hydrogen bonds

21

How many bonds are found between C-G

3 hydrogen bonds

22

Describe the nucleus

The largest organelle in the cell
Contains most of the cell’s genetic material (DNA)
Replication of DNA and the first steps in decoding it for protein production take place in the nucleus

23

How big is the nucleus

5-10 μm in diameter

24

When are chromosomes visible in a cell

Only when the cell is dividing

25

What is DNA packaged into in the nucleus

Thread-like structures called chromosomes

26

What are chromosomes

A single piece of DNA containing many genes, regulatory elements and other nucleotide sequences

27

How many chromosomes do humans have

46

28

What is chromatin

The mixture of DNA, proteins and RNA that package DNA within the nucleus

29

Which two forms of chromatin can be found

Heterochromatin (condensed)
Euchromatin (extended)

30

What do transcription and replication require

The two strands of DNA to separate temporarily to allow enzymes access to the DNA template