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Principles of Disease > Imaging in cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Imaging in cancer Deck (44)
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1

What imaging methods can be used to diagnose and stage cancer

Plain radiographs
Barium studies
CT
MRI
PET

2

What is barium sulphate

A radio-opaque contrast used for outlining the gastro-intestinal tract

3

How does barium sulphate in barium studies work

The high atomic number of barium absorbs more x-ray photons than surrounding tissue

4

What colour does barium appear on radiographs

White

5

What does a barium swallow and meal show

Oesophagus
Stomach
Duodenum

6

What does a barium follow-through (small bowel study) show

Small bowel

7

What does a barium enema show

Large bowel

8

How does a patient prepare for a barium meal and follow-through

Fast for 4-6 hours

9

How does a patient prepare for a barium enema

Low residue diet for 48 hours
Bowel cleansing with picolax

10

What is a CT scan

When X-Rays produce a digitay image of a slice of tissue, normally in an axial plane, using computing to create the image

11

What type of cross sectional imaging is used for the initial diagnosis and staging of cancer

CT
MRI
PET

12

What can CT, MRI and PET also be used to identify

Response to treatment
Evaluation of mass after treatment
Complications of treatment
Concerns for replase

13

What is a hounsfield unit

Attenuation values of voxels are expressed as a CT number which relates the attenuation value to that of water
Ranges from +3000 (bone) to -1000 (air).

14

Can CT images be reconstructed

Yes

15

What type of CT contrast agents are there

Oral
Intravenous

16

What is an oral CT contrast agent

A dilute iodine based contrast (gastrografin) which can be given to outline the gastrointestinal tract

17

What is an intravenous CT contrast agent

An iodine based contrast (omnipaque) inject into the veins to show blood vessels or the vascularity of different tissues

18

How can imaging help in diagnosis and staging

It shows the:
Position of the tumour
Depth of penetration of the tumour
Relationship to adjacent structures
Involvement of regional lymph nodes
Presence of distant metastases

19

What types of tumours do CT scans help diagnose

Lung tumours
Pancreatic tumour
Renal tumours
Adrenal tumours
Retroperitoneal tumours
Brain tumours

20

How do CT scans help stage cancers

They assess the local spread (e.g. lymph nodes, adjacent organs) and assess the distant spread (e.g. liver, lung, bone or brain metastases)

21

What type of cancers are imaged using MRI's

Brain
Spinal cord
Head and Neck
Liver
Rectum and anal
Kidney
Bladder
Prostate
Ovary
Cervix, vagina, vulva
Uterus
Lymphoma - CNS/MSK
Musculoskeletal

22

How can CT scans monitor cancer

By making 2D measurement

23

What do CT scans monitor in cancer

Response to treatment
Relapse
Progression of disease

24

How many mSv is a patient exposed to from a chest CT

8

25

How many mSv is a patient exposed to from an abdomen CT

10

26

How many mSv is a patient exposed to from a pelivs CT

10

27

What is 10 mSv equivalent to

500 return flights from Manchester to Malaga
4 years in Aberdeen

28

What does the ALARA stand for

As low as reasonably achievable

29

What is the ALARA principle

It ensures whether the examination is necessary
There must be adequate clinical information for appropriate protocol and repeat examinations should be avoid

30

What does CT stand for

Computed tomograph