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Principles of Disease > Introduction to Medical Microbiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction to Medical Microbiology Deck (23)
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1

Name 5 microorganisms that cause disease

Bacteria
Fungi
Viruses
Parasites
Prions

2

From which sites can specimens be collected from and name some examples

Sterile
Blood
CSF
Lung
Bladder

Non-sterile
Skin
Nasopharynx
Urethra
Gut

3

Give examples of specimen types collected for culture

UTI – mid-stream urine (MSU)
Chest infection – sputum
Tonsillitis/pharyngitis – throat swab
Wound or site of infection – swab or pus
Diarrhoea – faeces
Bacteraemia – blood culture
Meningitis – cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

4

What do unstained cells in microscopy enable us to see

Pus (e.g. urine, CSF)
Parasites (e.g. faeces)

5

What do Gram stained cells in microscopy enable us to see

Bacteria
Yeast/fungi

6

What do ZN/auramine stained cells in microscopy enable us to see

Mycobacteria

7

Describe the features of Gram staining

Rapid
Non sensitive (but highly sensitive)
Cannot normally identify a specific species

8

State some features of bacterial cultures

Slow
Sensitive
The culture conditions must be suitable for the expected species

9

What type of culture conditions should be considered in bacterial cultures

Media type
Atmosphere
Temperature
Duration of incubation

10

Name the different media types used in bacterial culture

Non-selective (e.g. blood, chocolate)
Non-selective specialised (e.g. mycobacteria)
Selective (e.g. MacConkey)

11

How can bacterial species be identified in a culture

By its observable characters (e.g. morphological, physiological, biochemical)
DNA based tests

12

What is the difference between sterile and non-sterile sites

Sterile sites should not have any organisms present
Non sterile sites have their own flora

13

What methods can be used to detect viruses

Molecular methods (e.g. real time PCR)
Antigen detection
Serology to determine immunity
Electron microscopy
Cell or tissue culture (inoculate a cell line)

14

What are parasites

Protozoa (e.g. malaria, amoebae, flagellates)
Helminths (AKA worms, e.g. roundworms, tapeworms, flukes)
Arthropods (e.g. lice, ticks, mites)

15

What diagnostic principles can be used in parasitology

Microscopy to identify the different stages such as parasites, cysts and ova in faeces or blood films in malaria

Serology is sometimes useful

16

What are the basic infection control measures

Washing hands before touching a patient
Washing hands or applying alcohol gel between patients
Swabbing stethoscope between patients

17

What extra infection controls are required for patients in a single room

Washing hands and wearing a plastic apron
When leaving disposing of apron and washing hands

18

What is a nosocomial infection

Healthcare acquired infection

19

Name some nosocomial infections

MRSA
C. Diff
Organisms with extended spectrum beta lactamases

20

Name a community acquired infection

Streptococcus pneumoniae

21

What is associated with gram positive infection

Superantigens

22

How can genetic material be exchanged in bacteria

Through plasmids

23

What can promote fungal infections

Warm moist infections
Use of broad-spectrum antibiotics
Immunosuppression