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Principles of Disease > Lymphatics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lymphatics Deck (28)
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1

What is lymph made up of

Fluid and plasma proteins only
It can gain lymphocytes as it flows through the lymphatic capillaries and channels (e.g. fats will be added in the small intestine)

2

What does the flow in the lymphatic system rely upon

Muscle contraction
Pressure changes
Gravity

3

What is the flow in the lymphatic system similar to

Veins

4

Why is the flow in the lymphatic system unidirectional

Due to valves

5

What happens to the fluid flow into extracellular spaces an infection

Increases due to protein accumulation (osmosis) which drives an increased lymph flow and therefore the immune response in the nodes, as more antigens are being presented and phagocytosis occurs

6

What are the 4 main functions of the lymphatic system

Tissue drainage
Return of plasma and plasma proteins
Absorb fat from the gut
Immunity

7

How can the lymphatic system drain tissue and return plasma proteins

Drains must escape cell-free plasma (tissue fluid) from the extracellular spaces back to the venous system (about 8L a day)

8

What does a lymph node consist of

Mass of lymphatic tissue that is surrounded by a fibrous capsule

Every node is connected to an incoming and outgoing lymph vessel

9

What are germinal centres

Secondary lymphoid follicles

10

What are lymph nodes

Secondary lymphoid tissues of about 0.1-2.5cm in diameter where the immunological (acquired immunity) functions of the lymph are located

11

Lymph nodes can be

Isolated
Grouped

12

Where are grouped lymph nodes found

At the bases of major arterial trunks

13

How much lymph is approximately produced per day

8L

14

What happens to the lymph produced everyday

About half is reabsorbed into the lymph nodes

15

How many lymph nodes are there in a young adult

About 450

16

How many lymph nodes in the abdomen are chiefly associated with the mesenteries

250

17

What are the lymph nodes in the abdomen chiefly associated with the mesenteries known as

Deep lymph nodes

18

Give an example of superficial lymph nodes

Inguinal nodes located in and around the femoral triangle at the base of the lower limb

19

Give an example of a primary lymphatic tumour

Hodgkins

20

How does a secondary tumour form

As a result of metastasis from other sites

21

How does lymphatic fluid drainage occur

Initially it occurs symmetrically from the limbs, head, neck and trunk
Deep lymphatic drainage will normally follow the routes of arterial supply
Eventually all the lymph congregates into 2 large lymph ducts which empty into the venous system at the jugular/subclavian junction

22

How many lymphatic ducts are there
Name them

2
Right lymphatic duct
Thoracic duct

23

What happens to the fat absorbed into the lymph from the small intestine

They drain to the SVC and eventually to the liver for absorption

24

Where can lymphocytes be generated and mature

Thymus and Bone marrow (1)
Spleen (2)
Lymph nodes (2)
Peyer’s patches (2)
Tonsils
Lymphocytes

25

What is the spleen

Largest lymphatic organ
It's present in the upper left quadrant of abdomen (peritonised)
Contains large amount of blood, routinely discharged via smooth muscle action

26

What occurs in the white pulp of of the spleen

The immune function where T (PALS) and B (germinal centres) cells are found

27

What is found in the spleen

Red pulp
White pulp

28

Where does lymph drainage NOT occur from

Epithelium
Cartilage
Bone
Central nervous system
Or from the majority of the spleen and liver