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Flashcards in Introduction to Bacteria Deck (24)
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1

Do bacteria have a nucleus

No

2

What are the cell surface features of Gram positive bacteria

Plasma membrane
Periplasmic space
Peptidoglycan

They stain purple using Gram staining

3

What are the cell surface features of Gram negative bacteria

Plasma membrane
Periplasmic space
Peptidoglycan
Outer membrane (consisting of lipopolysaccharide and protein)

They stain red/pink using Gram staining.

4

What cell surface features to Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria share

Plasma membrane
Periplasmic space Peptidoglycan

5

What shape do cocci have

Spherical

6

What shape do bacilli have

Rod

7

What are the main structures of a typical bacterial cell

Chromosome
Cytoplasm
Cell wall
Ribosome
Penicillin binding proteins
Peptidoglycan
Lipopolysaccharide
Capsule
Flagella
Fimbriae
Plasmid
Bacteriophage
Spores

8

What is the function of a capsule

Rigid capsule - protects bacteria from being engulfed
Fragile capsules - form strong biofilms and enables them to engulf cells

9

What types of flagellum are there

A-Monotrichous (e.g. Vibrio Cholerae) - has 1 flagellum
B-Lophotrichous (e.g. Sprillium spp) - has multiple flagella from a singular point
C-Amphitrichous (e.g. Rhodospirillum rubrum) - has flagellum on both sides
D-Peritrichous - has flagella all over (e.g. Escherichia coli).

10

What is the function of flagellum

Motility

11

What is the function of fimbriae

Adherence

12

How do bacteria replicate

Binary fission - creates identical bacterium

13

How do bacteria create genetic variation

Spontaneous mutation
Transfer of DNA

14

How can individual bacteria be seen

Using a microscope with a x1000 oil immersion lens and staining (e.g. Gram, fluorescent dyes)

15

How can bacterial colonies be seen

Through cluture on a solid medium (e.g. agar) then by eye

16

How are bacteria named

Based on there genus and species to produce a genus species name (in that order e.g. Staphylococcus aureus)

17

How are different bacterial strains identified

DNA typing techniques

18

What is the function of penicillin binding proteins

To cross link transpeptidases, carboxypeptidases and endopeptidases

19

What is the function of peptidoglycan

Provides strength and shape
Has carbohydrate polymers
Component of Gram negative cell walls

20

What is the function of lipopolysaccharides

To produce a strong immune response in animals and humans

21

What is Neisseria meningitidis

Gram negative coccus
Life threatening cause of meningitis and septicemia

22

What organisms produce superantigens

Gram positive organisms

23

Name a gram positive organsims

Bacillus anthracis

24

Which organisms cannot be seen on a gram stain

Mycobacterium
Spirochaetes
Chlamydia