Therapeutic Options: Cancer Flashcards Preview

Principles of Disease > Therapeutic Options: Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Therapeutic Options: Cancer Deck (35)
Loading flashcards...
1

What type of therapeutic options are there

Prevention
Treatment

2

Name some prevention therapeutic options

Environment / Behaviour change
Diet
Screening
Genetics
Medication / vaccination

3

Name some treatment therapeutic options

Surgery
Radiotherapy
Systemic therapy
Immunotherapy

4

Name a diet risk factor of colorectal cancer

Red meat consumption

5

Name a diet risk factor of breast cancer

Link with saturated fat intake

6

Name a diet risk which decreases a persons chance of obtaining cancer

Physical activity

7

What is the current dietary adivce

Eat 5 or more portions of fruits and vegetables/day
Avoid obesity
Take regular exercise (30 minutes/day)

8

What type of screening is available for cervical cancer

Smear tests

9

What type of screening is available for colorectal cancer

Faecal occult blood

10

What type of screening is available for breast cancer

Mammography

11

What type of screening is available for prostate cancer

PSA blood test
(although more controversial)

12

What type of screening is available for lung cancer

MR/CT scanning
Breath test
(although more controversial)

13

Describe the features of CRC and familial adenomatous polyposis coli (FAP)

Autosomal dominant
Screen families for APC mutations
Regular colonoscopy
Offer panprotocolectomy when are adenomas found

14

What is a controversial primary oesophageal cancer chemo-prevention method

Supplement diet with anti-oxidants

15

What is a controversial primary breast cancer chemo-prevention method

Known at risk women can be given prophylactic tamoxifen

16

What type of local or regional treatment is avaliable

Surgery
Radiotherapy
Ablation (freezing, radio-frequency, etc)
Isolated limb perfusion

17

What type of systemic treatment is available

Hormonal therapy
Chemotherapy
Immunotherapy
Whole body irradiation (for BMT)

18

How can where the cancer is be identified

Through examination
Radiology/imaging (e.g. CT, MRI, USS, PET etc.)

19

How can the type of cancer be identified

Through pathology and cytology

20

What does surgery require

Anatomical clearance

21

What does radiotherapy require

Anatomical coverage

22

What are the benefits of radiotherapy

Can treat inoperable lesions
Can make surgery become possible
Can maintain function and/or appearance

23

What are the 5 R's of radiobiology

Radiosensitivity
Repair
Re-population
Re-oxygenation
Re-assortment

24

Describe the features of radiotherapy

About 40% of cancers are cured by radiotherapy (e,g, head and neck, cervix, uterus, skin and lymphoma)
Can be combined with chemotherapy (e.g. anal cancer, rectal cancer, oesophageal cancer)
Important role in palliation (e.g. pain, bleeding, swollen limbs)

25

State an advantage and disadvantage of systemic treatments

Beneficial for widespread disease
Can result in widespread toxicity

26

What are the indications for the use of cytotoxic drugs

‘Curative’
Palliative
Adjuvant
‘Neoadjuvant'

27

What are designer therapies

‘Specific’ therapies based on molecular science

28

What kind of immune therapies are there

Non-specific/innate
Specific

29

What kind of therapy uses monoclonal antibodies

Rituximab

30

What does the programmed cell death pathway type of immune therapy do

Uses immune system to attack ‘foreign’ cancer cells