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Flashcards in Diagnostic Techniques Deck (20)
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1

How many diagnoses involve pathology

Over 70%

2

How many different disciplines make up pathology

23

3

Name some disciplines of pathology

Genetics
Medical microbiology
Virology
Haematology
Clinical biochemistry
Histopathology
Immunology

4

What is clinical biochemistry

The study of changes in chemical composition of body fluids in the diagnosis and monitoring of disease processes.

5

What is immunology

The study of the body's immune system and its disorders

6

What is microbiology

The study of infection caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses
Identification of the best treatment options for infection
The monitoring of antibiotic resistance
It also includes testing for how well a patient is responding to treatment of infection

7

What is haematology

The study of blood cells

8

What is histopathology (cyto)

The study of diseased tissue/cells

9

What is genetics

The study of DNA and its relation to genetically transmitted disorders

10

Why should lab tests be used

For:
Screening
Diagnosis
Monitoring
Prognosis

It informs a clinical decision

11

What is screening

Detection of sub-clinical disease

e.g. Neonatal Screening for PKU, Cervical Smear for cervical cancer

12

What is diagnosis

Confirmation or rejection of clinical diagnosis

e.g. Measurement of urea and creatinine for ?renal failure, Biopsy for ?lung cancer

13

What is monitoring

Natural history or response to treatment

e.g. Measurement of CRP to see if an infection is resolving, Measuring CD4 and viral load for HIV monitoring

14

What is prognosis

Prediction of course or outcome of the disease

e.g. Tumour markers

15

What essential information is required for a lab diagnosis

Full ten digit CHI number
Patient’s surname
Patient’s forename
Date of birth
Specimen type
Anatomical site
Investigations required
Date and time of collection
Relevant clinical history

16

What is POCT

POCT is laboratory testing performed in the clinical setting by non-laboratory healthcare professionals

17

What type of tests could a POCT be

Blood gases
Blood glucose
Urine dip-sticks
Urine analysis

18

Why is POCT useful

Smaller sample volumes
Less clinically invasive
Improved turnaround time
Potential for better monitoring of certain conditions

19

How can POCT be used in outpatient settings

POCT results can be used to adjust patient’s medication resulting in less frequent clinic appointments

20

What does POCT stand for

Point of care testing