Chemotherapy Flashcards Preview

Principles of Disease > Chemotherapy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chemotherapy Deck (44)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are the different types of treatment available for cancer

Surgery
Radiotherapy
Chemotherapy
Targeted therapies
Immunotherapy

2

What types of chemotherapy are there

IV or oral for systemic delivery/absorption

3

How should systemtic therapy be delivered

Oral or intravenous route
Regular cycles with timing dependent on the findings from pharmacokinetics (half life, excretion)
May be need for delay if toxicities develop
Intensification previously evaluated: better in non-solid tumours

4

What methods can be used to access drug activtiy

Objective
Improved
Adjuvant
Neoadjuvant

5

Describe the objective method

It shows an objective response in advanced disease via CT scan, PET scan and/or clinical examination
RECIST criteria if radiological

6

Describe the improved method

Shows:
Overall survival (OS)
Progression-free survival (PFS)
Improved quality of life (QoL)

7

Describe the adjuvant method

Shows if treatment improves survival

8

Describe the neoadjuvant method

It may improve survival through increasing operability or reduce the ‘filed’ of radical radiotherapy (treatment before surgery)

9

Name the catergories that cytotoxic agents be classified into

Alkylating agents
Anti-metabolites
Mitotic inhibitors
Antibiotics
Others

10

What is the site of action for anti-metabolites

DNA synthesis
They impair replication

11

What is the site of action for alkylating agents

DNA

12

What is the site of action for intercalating agents

DNA transcription
DNA duplication

13

What is the site of action for spindle poisons

Mitosis

14

What is the mode of action for alkylating agents

The alkyl group allows covalent bonds with other molecules
DNA helix X-links intra- and interstrand
Attaches to free guanines at N6 on separated DNA strands
Can not act as templates for new DNA formation

15

What is the structure of antimetabolites

Similar chemical structure to essential metabolites required by cell prior to cell division

16

What is the mode of action for antimetabolites

They may be incorporated into new nuclear material or bind irreversibly with vital enzymes to inhibit cell division

17

Give examples of antimetabolites

Antagonise folic acid (methotrexate)
Antagonise purine (6-mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine)

18

What is the mode of action for vinca alkaloids

They bind to tubulin and block microtubule formation and spindle formation which is essential for metaphase of mitosis)

19

What are vinca alkaloids

They are metaphase arrest agents

20

What is the mode of action for taxanes

They promote spindles and ‘freeze’ cells at that stage of cycles

21

Name the categories of antimitotic antibiotics

Anthracyclines
Non-anthracyclines

22

Describe the features of antimitotic antibioditics

They intercalate and inhibit DNA and RNA synthesis
Membrane binding and increase permeability to various ions
Free radicals disrupt DNA chain and prevent mitosis
Metal ion chelation resulting in cytotoxic compounds
Alylation blocking DNA replication

23

At what stage of the cell cycle do antibiotics work

End of G1
S
Beginning of G2

24

At what stage of the cell cycle do antimetabolites work

S phase

25

At what stage of the cell cycle do vincaalcaloids work

Beginning of M phase

26

At what stage of the cell cycle do mitotic inhibitors work

M phase

27

At what stage of the cell cycle do taxoids work

End of M
Beginning of G1

28

At what stage of the cell cycle do alkylating agents work

The whole cell cycle
G1, S, G2, M

29

What is the aim of combination therapy

To increase efficacy

30

What does combination therapy combine

Different mechanisms of action
Different mechanisms of resistances