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Flashcards in second test on memory Deck (100)
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1

Memory?

persistence of learning over time via the storage and retrieval of info

2

flashbulb memory?

a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event; San Francisco residence recalling 1989 Earthquake

3

Encoding

Get info into our brain

4

Storage

retaining information

5

Retrieval

getting the information back later

6

Long Term Memory?

relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system

7

Short Term Memory?

activated memory that holds few items briefly; phone number just dial

8

Automatic Processing ?

unconscious encoding of incidental info; occurs with little or no effort, without our awareness, and without interfering with our thinking of other things; space, time, frequency, well-learned info

9

Effortful Processing?

encoding that requires attention and conscious effort; memorizing these notes for the AP Psychology exam

10

Rehearsal?

conscious repetition of info, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage

11

Next in Line Effect?

when people go around circle saying names/words, poorest memories are for name/word person before them said

12

Spacing effect?

Retain info better when rehearsal distributed over time

13

Serial position effect?

tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list

14

Semantic Encoding?

encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words

15

Acoustic Encoding?

encoding of sound, especially the sound of words

16

Visual Encoding?

encoding of picture images

17

Which type of encoding, Semantic Acoustic or Visual, yielded the best results?

semantic

18

Imagery?

mental pictures; powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding;can easily picture where we were yesterday, where we sat, and what we wore

19

Mnemonic?

any learning technique that aids information retention in the human memory. Mnemonics aim to translate information into a form that the brain can retain better than its original form.

20

Chunking?

organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically; Able remember info best when able to organize it into personal meaningful arrangements

21

Why do we forget information or not have it encoded into our brains?

never entered memory system

22

Sensory Memory?

immediate, initial recording of sensory info in memory system. For example the ability to look at something and remember it with just a second of observation is sensory memory

23

Iconic Memory?

momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; photographic/picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a sec

24

Echoic Memory?

momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 sec; auditory = ear, which starts with “e” like echoic

25

Short Term Memory?

without active processing, short-term memories have limited life, only process about 7 bits of info like a phone number

26

Long Term Memory?

capacity for storing long-term memories is practically limitless

27

Long Term Potential?

increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation; believed to be neural basis for learning and memory; passing electric current through brain won’t disrupt old memories, but wipe up recent experiences; football player with blow to head won’t recall name of play before the blow; Drugs that block neurotransmitters also disrupt info storage; drunk people hardly remembers previous evening; Stimulating hormones affect memory as more glucose available to fuel brain activity, indicating important event – sears events onto brain; remembering first kiss, earthquake

28

Amnesia?

loss of memory

29

Implicit Memory?

retention without conscious recollection (of skills and dispositions); how to do something, riding a bike

30

Explicit Memory?

memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare”; remember it was done before