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Flashcards in Third test on the biological basis of behavior Deck (130)
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1

neuron

nerve cell, basic building block of the nervous system

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dendrites

neuron's bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body

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axon

neuron extensions that passes messages through its branches to other neurons

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Myelin sheet

fatty tissue layer that segmentally encases the axons of some neurons; enables vastly greater transmission seed as neural impulses hop from sausage like node to the next

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action potential

neural impulse; a breif electrical charge that travels

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refractory period

a period of inactivity after a neuron has fired

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threshold

the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

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all or non response

a neurons reaction of either firing (with a full strength response) or not firing

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synapse

the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. this tiny gap is called the synaptic gap or the synaptic cleft

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neurotransmitters

chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gap between neurons. these travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse

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reuptake

a nuerotransmitters reabsorption by the sending neuron

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endorphins

natural opiate like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure

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agonist

a molecule that, by binding to a receptor site, stimulates a response

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antagonist

a molecule that, by binding to a receptor site, inhibits oe blocks a response

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nervous system

the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems

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central nervous system (cns)

the brain and spinal chord

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peripheral nervous system

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body

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nerves

bundled axons that form neural "cables" connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs

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sensory (afferent) neurons

neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal chord

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motor (afferent) neurons

neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal chord to the muscles and glads

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interneurons

neurons within the brain and spinal chord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor inputs

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somatic nervous system

the division of the peripheral nervous system that control's the body's skeletal muscles. also call the skeletal muscle system

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autonomic nervous system (ANS)

the part of the peripheral nervous system tha controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart(. its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms

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sympathetic nervous system

the division of tha autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations

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parasympathetic nervous system

the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy

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sympathetic nervous system does what?

arouses

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Parasympathetic nervous system does what?

calms

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endocrine system?

the body's "slow" chemical communication system: a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream

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hormones

chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands travel through the bloodstream and affect other tissues

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adrenal glands

a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones that hep arouse the body in times of stress