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Flashcards in Required reading Deck (6)
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1

What is the cecum?

A pouch near the appendix that is important for fermenting ingested material especially in animals that eat large amounts of plant material.

2

How is the sugar fructose transported in the body?

It moves by facilitated diffusion down its concentration gradient from the lumen of the small intestine into the epithelial cells, from there fructose exits the basal surface and is absorbed into microscopic blood vessels at the core of each villus. These blood vessels lead to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. Aka passive transport

3

How are nutrients such as amino acids, small peptides, vitamins, and most glucose molecules transported in the body?

They are pumped against a concentration gradient into the epithelial cells of the villus aka active transport. These blood vessels lead to the liver via the hepatic portal vein.

4

What is the liver the primary site for?

Detoxifying many organic molecules foreign to the body such as drugs and certain metabolic waste products.

5

How are fats (triglycerides) transported in the body?

The broken down products of fats in the small intestine due to hydrolysis are absorbed by the epithelial cells and recombined into triglycerides, they are then coated forming globules called chylomicrons. To exit the small intestine they enter a vessel at the core of each villus which then passes them into larger vessels of the lymphatic system and eventually into large veins that return blood directly to the heart.

6

How is water transported in the body?

Water is reabsorbed via osmosis when sodium and other ions are pumped out of the lumen of the intestine.