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Flashcards in Large intestine Deck (31)
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1

What are the main functions of the large intestine?

Forming feces, absorbing essential vitamins produced by gut bacteria and reclaiming water.

2

What is a chyme?

A slurry of digested food

3

What are the benefits of the large intestine absorbing water?

Helps to condense and solidify feces but also allows the body to retain water that can be used in other metabolic proccesses.

4

Where is dried condensed fecal matter stored?

In the rectum and sigmoid colon

5

What is a microbiome?

Community of microorganisms. Our gut, mouth and skin each host their own unique microbiome community vital for maintaining a robust immune system, a healthy gut, a resilient skin barrier and overall good health.

6

Bacteria fermentation turns what into what?

Chyme into feces releasing vitamins K, B1, B2, B6, ans B12, and biotin.

7

What is an essential function of vitamin K

Essential in the proper clotting of blood

8

Why do we fart?

During bacterial fermentation to release vitamins from feces, gases such as carbon dioxide and methane are produced as a byproduct leading to farts.

9

The gut is the main location of what?

Human microbiotia

10

What is gut flora and/or gut microbiota?

The microorganisms including bacteria, archea, and fungai that live in the digestive tract of humans and other animals.

11

What type of relationship do humans have with their gut flora?

A mutualistic symbolic relationship

12

Extensive modification and imbalances of the gut microbiota and its microbiome or gene collection are associated with what?

Obesity

13

True or False? Due to this high acidity of the stomach most microorganisms can survive in the stomach

False, most cannot survive

14

What are the most predominant microorganisms found in the small intestine?

Gram-positive cocci and rod shaped bacteria

15

Overgrowth of bacteria in the small intestine can lead to what?

Intestinal faliure

16

What are some factors that disrupt the microorganism population of the large intestine?

Stress, antibiotics, and parasites.

17

Which part of the body contains the largest bacterial ecosystem and general microbiome in the human body?

The large intestine

18

True or False? Diet alters microbiota associated with intestinal inflamation

True

19

A western diet (High Fat, Low fibre) results in what?

A decrease of bacteria SCFAs (Short chain Fatty acids), host AMPs, mucus production, and leads to tight junction protein expression. This leads to intestinal inflammation

20

A prebiotic and probiotic diet (high fibre) results in what?

The production of SCFAs, AMPs, mucus, and tight junction protein expression leading to an intact intestinal barrier and prevention from intestinal inflammation

21

True or False, can psychological stress lead to intestinal inflammation.

YES

22

True or False? Can environmental stress lead to intestinal inflammination

TRUE

23

True or False? Does a western diet lead to intestinal inflammination

True

24

True or False? Does a prebiotic and/or probiotic diet lead to intestinal inflammination

False

25

What are some functions of the microbiome?

direct the inhibition of pathogens, development of enteric protection and immune system, metabolism, gut brain axis.

26

True or False, your microbiome can change dependant on your diet.

True

27

True or False, your microbiome is not affected by age

False it is

28

Would the fecal matter of an older person or a younger person have increased diversity?

older person

29

The establishment of gut flora is crucial to what?

Health

30

How does a child acquire microbiota?

Within one to two years of birth through parent to child transmission such as transfer of food, water, and other environmental sources.