Flashcards in Allergys Deck (25)
How common are allergies?
Very common, about 1 in 3 people suffer from allergies in NZ
True or False, over 60% of people diagnosed with allergies develop asthma iswell.
What is hypersensitive immune response?
Hypersensitivity reactions are an overreaction of the immune system to an antigen which would not normally trigger an immune response
What is hayfever?
An allergic response causing itchy, watery eyes, sneezing and other similar symptoms.
What are allergens?
Things which cause abnormal immune responses
What is a dentritic cell?
Dendritic cells (DCs), are responsible for the initiation of adaptive immune responses.
True or False? A B cell can bind to an antigen in its natural state
antibodies humoral response?
The humoral immune response is mediated by antibody molecules that are secreted by plasma cells. This is the immune response involving the transformation of B cells into plasma cells that produce and secrete antibodies to a specific antigen.
Plasma cells produce how many classes of antibodies?
a blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen.
What are plasma cells?
Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, are white blood cells that originate in the bone marrow and secrete large quantities of proteins called antibodies in response to being presented specific substances called antigens.
What are immunoglobulins?
Known as an antibody, it is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens
What is IgG?
The main antibody in blood
What is IgA?
Antibody in tears, saliva, milk, mucus, aka secretions.
What is IgE?
Antibody involved in allergic reactions.
What does histamine cause?
Why is histamine released?
IgE production by B cells during the late phase of allergic reactions causes a what?
Secondary immune response, eg: releases histamine
Symptoms of histamine in the body?
Itchiness, increased mucus secretions, dilations of capillaries, contraction of airways.
What is a mast cell?
Although best known for their role in allergy and anaphylaxis, mast cells play an important protective role as well, being intimately involved in wound healing, angiogenesis, immune tolerance, defence against pathogens, and vascular permeability in brain tumours.
How do antibodies interact with mast cells?
Antibodies from the primary response get stuck on the surface of mast cells in connective tissues.
What is type 1 diabetes?
A chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. It is a type of immune response disorder
What is allergic contact dermatitis?
A skin rash caused by contact with a certain substance. It is a type of immune response disorder
Why is insulin important?
Insulin helps control blood glucose levels by signaling the liver and muscle and fat cells to take in glucose from the blood. Insulin therefore helps cells to take in glucose to be used for energy. If the body has sufficient energy, insulin signals the liver to take up glucose and store it as glycogen. Aka insulin is an important regulator.