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What are microorganisms?

a microscopic organism, especially a bacterium, virus, or fungus.


What is innate defence?

The first line of defense against non-self pathogens is the innate, or non-specific, immune response. The innate immune response consists of physical, chemical and cellular defenses against pathogens


What is barrier defence?

Barrier defenses are part of the body's most basic defense mechanisms. The barrier defenses are not a response to infections, but they are continuously working to protect against a broad range of pathogens. aka skin, membrane linings, mucus ect.


What is the goal of a virus?

To infect human cells


Define the immune system.

A complex network of cells, tissues, organs, and the substances they make that helps the body fight infections and other diseases


What is the innate immune response?

The innate immune response consists of physical, chemical and cellular defenses against pathogens. The main purpose of the innate immune response is to immediately prevent the spread and movement of foreign pathogens throughout the body.


What is the adaptive immune response?

the adaptive immunity is activated by exposure to pathogens, and uses an immunological memory to learn about the threat and enhance the immune response accordingly.


What is the different between the innate immune response and the adaptive immune response?

The innate immune response is activated by chemical properties of the antigen. Adaptive immunity refers to antigen-specific immune response. The adaptive immune response is more complex than the innate. ... Adaptive immunity also includes a "memory" that makes future responses against a specific antigen more efficient. Aka adaptive is smarter.


Are B and T cells innate or adaptive?



How does our immune system distinguish self from nonself?

The immune system can make this distinction because all cells have identification molecules (antigens) on their surface. Microorganisms are recognized because the identification molecules on their surface are foreign.


Can white blood cells distinguish self from nonself?

Yes by T cells)


What is phagocytosis?

Phagocytosis is the process by which a cell uses its plasma membrane to engulf a large particle, giving rise to an internal compartment called the phagosome.


What is phagocytosis defence?

Phagocytosis is a nonspecific defense mechanism in which various phagocytes engulf and destroy the microorganisms of disease. They are natural killer cells


What are antimicrobial peptides?

Host defence peptides that have the ability to kill microbial pathogens directly by disrupting membrane integrity of microbes


What are interferons?

Interferons are proteins that are part of your natural defenses. They tell your immune system that germs or cancer cells are in your body. And they trigger killer immune cells to fight those invaders. Interferons got their name because they "interfere" with viruses and keep them from multiplying


What is a inflammatory response?

The inflammatory response (inflammation) occurs when tissues are injured. The damaged cells release chemicals These chemicals cause blood vessels to leak fluid into the tissues, causing swelling.


What is histamine?

Histamine is a chemical released by your mast cells when you encounter an allergen


True or False? Some specific white blood cells can recognise antigens.



What are B and T cell receptors?

B cells produce and secrete antibodies, activating the immune system to destroy the pathogens. T cells directly kill infected host cells, activating other immune cells


What are antibodies?

A blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen


What is the difference between b and t cells

The main difference between T cells and B cells is that T cells can only recognize viral antigens outside the infected cells whereas B cells can recognize the surface antigens of bacteria and viruses


What are dendritic cells?

responsible for the initiation of adaptive immune responses


What are Helper T cells?

Helper T cells are arguably the most important cells in adaptive immunity, as they are required for almost all adaptive immune responses. They not only help activate B cells to secrete antibodies and macrophages to destroy ingested microbes, but they also help activate cytotoxic T cells to kill infected target cells.


What are Cytotoxic T cells?

Cytotoxic T cells are effector cells that destroy virus-infected cells, tumor cells, and tissue grafts that exist in the cytosol, or contiguous nuclear compartment.


How are B cells activated?

B-cells are activated by the binding of antigen to receptors on its cell surface which causes the cell to divide and proliferate


What are immune effector cells?

Immune effector cells are cells from the human body that have differentiated into a form capable of modulating or effecting an immune response.


What is a humoral immune response?

The humoral immune system deals with antigens from pathogens that are freely circulating, or outside the infected cells.


True or False? Active or effector cells are short lived.



True or False? Memory cells are short lasting cells

False - Long lasting


True or False? Memory Tc, Th, and B cells are specific for the same virus aka antigen