Label this diagram
L1 - Right lobe of liver
L2 - Bile ducts
L3 - Gallbladder
Middle - Small intestine
R1 - left lobe of liver
R2 - Stomach
R3 - Spleen
R4 - Pancreas
R5 - colon
What are the main functions of the liver?
Site of cholesterol and fat synthesis, site of protein degration and conversion to sugars and urea, bile generation, detoxification aka drug removal, and the breakdown of waste material.
Which two sources does the liver recieve its blood from?
The first is the hepatic artery which delivers oxygenated blood from the general circulation. The second is the hepatic portal vein delivering deoxygenated blood from the small intestine containing nutrients.
How does the nutrients interelate through the liver and circulation system?
Most nutrients absorbed by the intestine must pass through the liver before they enter the circulation system so that they can be filtered of harmful zenobiotics.
Which 3 veins and/or arterys connect to the liver, and from where do they come from?
Heptatic artery - comes from aorta of the heart
Hepatic portal vein - Comes from digestive capillaries
Hepatic vein - Leaves liver to enter inferior vena cava
True or False, all blood entering the digestive organs leaves via the hepatic portal vein.
True or False? The hepatic portal vein has high oxygen levels
What are sinusoids?
Sinusoids are low pressure vascular channels that receive blood from the hepatic artery and portal vein at the periphery of lobules and deliver it into central veins.
What is the bile duct?
The bile ducts are a series of thin tubes that go from the liver to the small intestine. Their major job is to move a fluid called bile from the liver and gallbladder into the small intestine, where it helps digest the fats in food.
What is the importance of the central vein in the liver?
They receive the blood mixed in the liver sinusoids (from hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein) and return it to circulation via the hepatic veins.
What are hepatocytes?
Hepatocytes are the chief functional cells of the liver and perform an astonishing number of metabolic, endocrine and secretory functions. Roughly 80% of the mass of the liver is contributed by hepatocytes. In three dimensions, hepatocytes are arranged in plates.
HC for head chief
Define liver sinusoid.
Blood vessel that serves as a location for the mixing of oxygen rich blood from the hepatic artery and nutrient rich blood from the portal vein.
Where is excess production of bile stored?
The gall bladder which sits right below the liver
Where is bile released into?
Released into the duodenum to breakup and solubilise fats from food.
Which organ makes bile?
How does fat and cholesterol metabolism work in hepatocytes?
Glucose from the blood (hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein) is absorbed by liver cells, the liver will burn some of it as the liver needs alot of energy. it will do this by converting it to glycolysis and then further coverted into ATP. Excess glucose will be stored, some as cholesterol ending up as bile salts and some as triacyglycerols aka fats to be stored in the body.
Where are fats made in the liver stored?
Either in the liver or exported to the body in lipoprotein particles to get to cells.
True or False? The liver is a fatty organ
If you stop eating foods high in cholesterol and fats does that mean your body will have less fats and cholesterol?
No as the liver will just produce more cholesterol and fats using glucose.
What happens if you eat foods high in fructose (bad sugar)?
It is directly converted into fats which can build up in the liver and develop into liver cirrhosis.
What is fatty liver disease?
An increased build-up of fat in the liver. Due to the intake of fructose which is directly convereted into TAG aka fats.
what is liver cirrhosis?
Chronic liver damage from a variety of causes leading to scarring and liver failure.
What is urea?
Urea is a waste product of metabolism that is excreted by the kidneys in urine
How is urea made from liver proteins?
Liver proteins are broken down to amino acids and the excess amino acids further degrade by the removal of the amino group which generates urea. The remaining part is turned into a sugar.
How does drug (xenobiotic) removal occur in the liver? aka detoxification
The product is oxygenised aka oxygen is added, then something water soluble is added
During detoxification of drugs or chemicals in the liver what type of enzymes carry out the phase one reactions?
How is THC metabolised in the liver?
It is metabolised by mainly p450 enzymes. more than 55% of THC is excreted in feces and 20% by the urine.
What is an issue with alcohol consumption that is similar to the issue with fructose especially is alcohol is mixed with sugar?
The liver breaks alcohol down by turining it into energy aka fat deposits, this can build up in liver and lead to issues similar to fructose such as liver issues and failiure. aka liver cirrhosis.
What is Alcoholic cirrosis?
Alcoholic liver cirrhosis is the most advanced form of liver disease that's related to drinking.