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What are subunit vaccines?

Subunit vaccines include only parts of the virus or bacteria, or subunits, instead of the entire germ. Because these vaccines contain only the essential antigens and not all the other molecules that make up the germ, side effects are less common.


What is recombinant DNA technology?

Recombinant DNA Technology is defined by the Encyclopedia Britannica as “the joining together of DNA molecules from different organisms and inserting it into a host organism to produce new genetic combinations that are of value to science, medicine, agriculture and industry.”


Easiest way to define a subunit vaccine?

Specific proteins of a pathogen selected as antigens for the vaccine.


What does the Hepatitis B vaccine do?

Hepatitis B vaccine gives protection against infection from the hepatitis B virus.


What type of vaccine is hepatitis b?

A subunit vaccine.


Viral coat proteins are genetically engineered what type of cells?



What subunit of hepatitis B is added to the hepatitis B vaccine?

The vaccine contains one of the viral envelope proteins, Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)(Viral coat protein). It is produced by yeast cells.


What are the advantages of large scale production of genetically engineered cells?

Safer, reduced costs, production control


What is molecular farming?

Molecular farming is a biotechnological program that includes the genetic modification of agricultural products to produce proteins and chemicals for commercial and pharmaceutical purposes


What are transgenic farm animals?

A transgenic animal is one that carries a foreign gene that has been inserted into its genome.


What are transgenic plants?

Transgenic plants are plants that have been genetically engineered, a breeding approach that uses recombinant DNA techniques to create plants with new characteristics.


What are edible vaccines?

any foods; typically plants, that produce vitamins, proteins or other nourishment that act as a vaccine against a certain disease.


What are the advantages of edible vaccines?

They can be eaten raw, no need to refrigerate, for developing countries, for children.


What are the general stages of the development process of vaccines?

The exploratory stage, pre-clinical stage, clinical development (3 sub stages), regulatory review and approval stage, manufacturing stage, and the quality control stage.


What is AIDS?

HIV causes AIDS and interferes with the body's ability to fight infections.
The virus can be transmitted through contact with infected blood, semen or vaginal fluids.
Within a few weeks of HIV infection, flu-like symptoms such as fever, sore throat and fatigue can occur.


What is the retorvirus? RNA genome

A retrovirus is a type of virus that inserts a copy of its RNA genome into the DNA of a host cell that it invades, thus changing the genome of that cell


What is CD4?

In molecular biology, CD4 is a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells such as T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. They play a major role in instigating and shaping adaptive immune responses


What is antigenic variation?

Antigenic variation not only enables the pathogen to avoid the immune response in its current host, but also allows re-infection of previously infected hosts. aka escapes the bodys defences and alters how it appears to the hosts immune system.


True or False? Chickenpox can remain dormant in a host then reinfect years later.



Can a virus exchange genes with those in animals ?

Yes, this has happened in terms of the influenza outbreak, and covid-19 pandemic.


How are antibodies used as tools?

As passive immunity, medicines, in venoms, as tests, and for detection purposes.