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Flashcards in The kidneys Deck (37)
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1

What is a general definition of the kidney?

A blood filtering organ which filters water, all solutes except for proteins from blood and reclaims only amounts that the body requires to function and excretes the rest as urine.

2

What is a general definition of the ureter?

Channel for urine flow from one kidney to the urinary bladder

3

What is a general definition of the urinary bladder?

Stretchable urine storage organ

4

What is a general definition of the urethra?

Urine flow channel between the urinary bladder and the body surface (reproductive organs).

5

Label this diagram 

Refer to picture 

6

What are some of the functions of the kidneys?

They control the volume of blood and blood pressure via removing water, control blood ph and salt content, remove waste, stimulate the production of red blood cells, help with bone growth control. 

7

Where do the kidneys sit?

High in the back of the body below the diaphram. 

8

What protects the kidneys?

Back fat and muscle 

9

What is the name of the cavity and its outer layer that sits near the kidneys?

Abdominal cavity- outer layer is called the peritoneum. 

10

Label this diagram

Refer to picture 

11

How is water and solutes trasnported to the kidneys?

Via the circulatory system 

12

How can the renal medulla be identified?

It has a distinct pattern similar to a flower petal. 

13

Define nephron

Nephron, functional unit of the kidney, the structure that actually produces urine in the process of removing waste and excess substances from the blood. ... There are about 1,000,000 nephrons in each human kidney.

14

What are the 3 steps of urine formation? 

Filtration, Reabsorption, and secretion. 

15

Where does blood filtration occur?

In the glomerulus

16

Why is blood pressure important in the glomerulus?

Glomerular filtration is occurs due to the pressure gradient in the glomerulus due to blood pressure. 

17

If blood pressure drops below 80 what happens to GFR aka Glomerulus filration rate? 

The rate will decrease conserving blood volume and can lead to kidney functions stopping. 

18

What occurs during reabsorption in the kidneys?

Useful substances are returned to the blood, this takes place across proximal tubule walls. Active transport moves glucose and sodium ions, water moves via osmosis. 

19

True or False? Water cannot be actively moved across membranes in the kidneys.

True although it can be moved/diffused through water selective pores. NOT ALL PARTS OF TUBULES ALLOW THIS TO HAPPEN. 

20

Why does water typically diffuse? 

To equalize salt conc

21

Why is major blood lose an issue in terms of the kidneys?

This will impact blood pressure and decrease the GFR in the kidneys therefore the blood cannot be filtered properly and the kidneys will shut down. 

22

What is the average GFR rate?

around 120ml/min 

23

How is water reabsorbed into the blood? 

During the loop of henel in the kidney medulla (remember flower petal) blood removed water from the tubules via osmosis as the way it is positioned in the loop of henle means it will collect salt conc before it reaches H2O molecules causing the H2O molecules to accend into the blood. 

24

Define secretion in the kidneys. 

The process in which rids the body of excess hydrogen ions and other substances adding them to urine forming in nephron tubes. This process is crucial to maintaing the bodys acid base balance and ensures waste and foreign substances do not build up in the blood. 

25

What percentage of water does your kidneys reabsorb? 

99%

26

What percentage of glucose does your kidneys reabsorb? 

100%

27

What percentage of amino acids do your kidneys reabsorb? 

95%

28

What percentage of sodium ions do your kidneys reabsorb? 

99.5%

29

What percentage of urea do your kidneys reabsorb? 

50%

30

How is ph controlled by the kidneys?

The kidneys help maintain the acid–base balance by excreting hydrogen ions into the urine and reabsorbing bicarbonate from the urine.