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Flashcards in Human Digestion Deck (27)
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1

What are the walls of the small intestine lined with?

Millions of microvilli, meaning this is the site of nutrient absorption

2

What is the site of nutrient absorption?

The walls of the small intestine

3

What are microvilli?

Microvilli are nonmotile finger-like protrusions from the apical surface of epithelial cells that function to increase the cell surface area and the efficiency of absorption

4

What does the small intestine produce?

Many digestive enzymes that completely break down large food polymers into monomers

5

Where is the water from digestive food absorbed in?

The large intestine

6

What does the bacteria in the large intestine feed on?

Unabsorbed nutrients

7

True or False? The large intestine cannot produce anything

False It can produce several vitamins

8

What is fecal material formed from?

Fiber an other undigestive material

9

The digestion of starches begins in the what?

mouth

10

Most digestion occurs in the what?

Small intestine

11

What part of the digestive system has high absorption rates of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids?

The duodenum (Start of small intestine)

12

What part of the digestive system has high absorption rates of calcium, iron, and folate?

The duodenum (Start of small intestine)

13

What part of the digestive system has high absorption rates of bile acids?

The ileum (last part of small intestine)

14

What part of the digestive system has high absorption rates of cobalamin?

The ileum (Last part of small intestine)

15

Acid digestion occurs where?

In the stomach

16

What does the pepsin enzyme do?

Breaks up proteins and requires an acidic environment to be active.

17

What are epithelium cells?

Epithelial cells are a type of cell that lines the surfaces of your body. They are found on your skin, blood vessels, urinary tract, and organs. They perform a variety of functions that include protection, secretion, absorption, excretion, filtration, diffusion, and sensory reception.

18

What are mucous cells?

Epithelial cells which are specialized to secrete mucus are called mucous cells

19

What are chief cells?

The gastric chief cell (also known as a zymogenic cell or peptic cell) is a cell in the stomach that releases pepsinogen and chymosin.

20

What are parietal cells?

one of the cells that are the source of the hydrochloric acid and most of the water in the stomach juices.

21

Where is the site of nutrient absorption in the human body?

The microvilli of the small intestine

22

What does the small intestine produce?

Digestive enzymes which can completely bread down food polymers into monomers

23

What is the intestinal epithelium?

The intestinal epithelium is the single cell layer that form the lining)of both the small and large intestine. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) provide a physical and biochemical barrier that segregates host tissue and commensal bacteria to maintain intestinal homeostasis.

24

What is active co transport?

the movement of molecules across a cell membrane from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration. Aka Less to more

25

What is osmosis?

a process by which molecules of a solvent tend to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one. Aka Less to more in solution through semipermable membrane.

26

What is facilitated diffusion?

Facilitated diffusion is the process of spontaneous passive transport of molecules or ions across a biological membrane via specific transmembrane integral proteins

27

What is simple diffusion?

Simple diffusion is the process by which solutes are moved along a concentration gradient in a solution or across a semipermeable membrane.