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Basic Immunology- Module 1 > Leishmaniasis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Leishmaniasis Deck (44)
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1

What is the vector for leishmania?

sandfly

2

What is the form of leishmania in sand fly?

promastigote

3

What is the form of leishmania in the cell?

amastigote

4

What is the main feature of promastigotes?

have a flagellum- can be cultures

5

Why amastigotes no longer motile?

have resorbed their flagellum

6

What is the appearance of sand flys?

small-3mm; hairy

7

What is the behaviour of sand flys?

hop aroudn before settling down to bite; attack is silent

8

What sex of sand fly feed on blood?

females

9

What are the resevoir hosts for leishamaniasis?

domestic dogs and wild animals e.g rodents; opossum

10

What are hte 2 main types of leishmaniasis disease?

cutaneous and visceral

11

What are hte forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis?

localised cutaneous; diffuse cutaneous; mucocutaneous

12

What does zoonotic mean?

transferred from animals to humans

13

What are the features of localised cutaneous leishmaniasis?

skin lesions of exposed body parts, often self healing, but can leave scars

14

Are patients after localised cutaneous leishmaniasis immune to reinfection?

yes

15

What are the features of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis?

disseminated lesions- multiple nodular, nonulcerating; resembles leprosy, difficult to treat, no spontaneous healing, frequent relapses

16

What are the features of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis?

disfiguring, destroys mucous membranes; no spontanous healing, relapses

17

What is visceral leishmaniasis characterised by?

irregular fever; weight loss; hepatosplenomegaly; anaemia

18

What is the main type of leishmaniasis causing diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis?

L.aethiopica

19

What is the main organism involved in mucocutaneosu leishmaniasis?

L.braziliensis

20

Where is mucocutaneous vs mucosal leishmaniasis foudn in the world?

mucocutaneous- s.america vs mucosal-africa

21

Why is diagnosis of CL difficult?

no serological tests; scraping of lesion to stain and look for amastigotes requires a lot of skill

22

When is treatment withheld in CL?

<2 lesions; <5cm awat from the nose/mouth

23

What are hte local treatments for CL?

intra-lesional injection of sodium stibogluconate; cryotherapy; thermotherapy

24

When would systemic drugs be given for CL?

usually in HIV+ patietns

25

what is the systemic tx for CL?

SSG and paramomycin

26

What other name is given to visceral leishmaniasis?

black fever

27

What is the prognosis of VL?

fatal if untreatmed

28

What are the risk factors for developing clinical VL?

malnutrition; immunosuppression; HIV

29

How is VL diagnosed?

serological tests- immunochromatographic strip trest with blood or direct agglutination test ( can give titre)

30

What is teh problem with the serological tests available for VL?

doesn't differentiate between past and present infections or symptomatic vs asymptomatic infection