Flashcards in Leishmaniasis Deck (44)
What is the vector for leishmania?
What is the form of leishmania in sand fly?
What is the form of leishmania in the cell?
What is the main feature of promastigotes?
have a flagellum- can be cultures
Why amastigotes no longer motile?
have resorbed their flagellum
What is the appearance of sand flys?
What is the behaviour of sand flys?
hop aroudn before settling down to bite; attack is silent
What sex of sand fly feed on blood?
What are the resevoir hosts for leishamaniasis?
domestic dogs and wild animals e.g rodents; opossum
What are hte 2 main types of leishmaniasis disease?
cutaneous and visceral
What are hte forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis?
localised cutaneous; diffuse cutaneous; mucocutaneous
What does zoonotic mean?
transferred from animals to humans
What are the features of localised cutaneous leishmaniasis?
skin lesions of exposed body parts, often self healing, but can leave scars
Are patients after localised cutaneous leishmaniasis immune to reinfection?
What are the features of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis?
disseminated lesions- multiple nodular, nonulcerating; resembles leprosy, difficult to treat, no spontaneous healing, frequent relapses
What are the features of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis?
disfiguring, destroys mucous membranes; no spontanous healing, relapses
What is visceral leishmaniasis characterised by?
irregular fever; weight loss; hepatosplenomegaly; anaemia
What is the main type of leishmaniasis causing diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis?
What is the main organism involved in mucocutaneosu leishmaniasis?
Where is mucocutaneous vs mucosal leishmaniasis foudn in the world?
mucocutaneous- s.america vs mucosal-africa
Why is diagnosis of CL difficult?
no serological tests; scraping of lesion to stain and look for amastigotes requires a lot of skill
When is treatment withheld in CL?
<2 lesions; <5cm awat from the nose/mouth
What are hte local treatments for CL?
intra-lesional injection of sodium stibogluconate; cryotherapy; thermotherapy
When would systemic drugs be given for CL?
usually in HIV+ patietns
what is the systemic tx for CL?
SSG and paramomycin
What other name is given to visceral leishmaniasis?
What is the prognosis of VL?
fatal if untreatmed
What are the risk factors for developing clinical VL?
malnutrition; immunosuppression; HIV
How is VL diagnosed?
serological tests- immunochromatographic strip trest with blood or direct agglutination test ( can give titre)