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Basic Immunology- Module 1 > Immunological Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immunological Memory Deck (47)
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1

What are the differences between the primary and secondary responses of B cells?

higher frequency of antigen specific B cells; produce IgG or IgA rather than IgM; higher affinity and higher level of somatic hypermutation

2

How can memory B cells be created?

either from the primary response germinal center reaction or independently of hte germinal centre reaction from short-lived plasma cells

3

Where do memory B cells take up residence?

spleen and lymph nodes

4

What markers distinguish memory B cells from naive B cells and plasma cells?

switched surface Ig isotype (rather than just IgM or IgD- whilst plasma cells have very low surface Ig; CD27 is found on memory B cells and naive T cells ; memory B cells have higher levels of MHC II and B7.1

5

what does Cd27 on memory B cells and naive T cells bind to?

CD70 expressed on dendritic cells

6

What is the difference between isotypes of antibody produced in the primary response vs the secondary response?

secondary response produces relatively little IgM; lots of IgG and some IgA and IGE

7

Why do memory cells have higher levels of MHC II and B7.1?

memory B cells can acquire and present antigen more efficiently to Tfh cells so they can help stimulate the antibody repsonse

8

What causes the affinity of the antibodies produced during secondary and tertiary responses to rise progressively?

memory B cells can reenter germinal centers and undergo additional somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation

9

What protein do memory T cells express more of than activated T cells?

Bcl-2 : promotes cell survivial

10

What markers do activated T cells express that memory T cells don't ?

CD69

11

What important markers differentiate memory T cells from effector T cells?

alpha subunit of hte IL7 recceptor (expressed by naive T cells but not effector)

12

What do naive T cells require to survive?

require contact with self peptide:selfMHC complexes as well as IL7

13

What cytokines does the survival of memory T cells rely on?

IL7 and IL15 (CD8)

14

What is the homing receptor taht directs T cells into secondary lymphoid tissues?

L-selectin (CD62L)

15

What homing receptor is found on effector and memory T cells instead of L-selectin?

CD44- expressed in peripheral tissues

16

Why do memory T cells express CD44 instead of L-selectin?

means they can migrate from the blood into peripheral tissues rather than migrating directly into lymphoid tissues

17

What is CD45?

a surface protein tyrosine phosphatase expressed on all haematopoietic cells

18

What cells is the CD45RO isoform found on?

effector and memory T cells

19

What chemokine receptor do central memory T cells express?

CCR7

20

What is the function of central memory T cells?

recirculate similarly to naive T cells, traffic throug the T zones of peripheral lymphoid tissues

21

What is the pattern of migration of naive T cells?

migrate from the blood, into the secondary lymphoid organ then into the lymphatics and back into the blood

22

What is the differnece between central memory T cells and otehr memory T cells?

very sensitive to cross-linking of their T cell receptor and rapidly express CD40L in response but become effectors relatively slowly

23

What markers do effector memory T cells possess?

lack CCR7 but express b1 and b2 integrins

24

What is the function of effector memory T cells?

rapidly enter inflamed tissues and rapidly mature into effector T cells

25

What cytokines do effector T cells produce soon after stimulation?

IFNy; IL-4 and IL-5

26

What is hte migration pattern of effector T cells?

migrate from blood into peripherl non-lymphoid tissues then into lymphatics--secondary lymphoid tissues--lymphatics--blood

27

What is different about tissue resident memory T cells compared with central and effector memeory T cells?

do not migrate but take up residence in epithelial sites

28

What does TGF-b production by epithelial cells cause in the Trm?

Trm cells express ae:b7 which binds E-cadherin expressed by the epithelium and is required for Trm retenion

29

What happens when Tcm cells are stimulated by antigen?

lose expression of CCR7 and differentiate into Tem cells

30

How have effector memory T cells been classified?

according to the chemokine receptors typical of Th1; Th17 and Th2 cells