Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Flashcards Preview

Basic Immunology- Module 1 > Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine > Flashcards

Flashcards in Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Deck (53)
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1

What is regenerative medicine?

repair of functionally compromised cells; tissues or organs by biological substitutes or stimulation of endogenous process

2

What are the advantages of using primary cells?

autologous

3

what are the disadvantages of using primary cells?

limited availability; low yield; poor growth rate

4

What is self-renewl?

a cell divides to generate daughter cells equivalent to the mother cell

5

What is cell potency?

rang of differentiation options availble to a cell?

6

Waht is a totipotent cell?

has the capacity to form an entire organsim

7

Give an example of a totipotent ell?

zygote

8

What is a multipotent cell?

can form multiple cell types that constitute the entire tissue or tissues

9

What is a pluripotent cell?

ablt to form all the body's cell lineages including germ cells

10

What can pluripotent cells not generate?

placenta and embryo

11

Give an eample of a multipotent cell?

haematopoietic stem cell

12

Give an example of a pluripotent cell?

human embryonic stem cell

13

Where are adult stem cells found?

tissue specific- only localise in one specific region of the tissue

14

What is the self-renewal capacity of adult stem cells?

niche-dependent (the environemtn of hte specific area where they are located), capable of life long self-renewal

15

Waht type of cell are adult stem cells?

multipotent

16

What tumour are adult stem cells not able to form?

teratoms

17

Where are hair follicle stem cells found?

only in bulge region of hair follicle

18

Where are intestinal stem cells found?

only at bottom of crypts

19

Where are haematopoietic stem cells found?

long-term stem cells: close to osteoblasts; short-term stem cells: mear to blood vessels

20

What were mesenchymal stem cells originally named stem cells?

a class of cells from human bone marrow and periosteum that can be isolated and expanded in cultre and induced to form a variety of mesodermal phenotypes and tissues

21

What is thought to be the function of mesenchymal stem cells now?

immunomodulatory and trophic- not multipotent stem cells

22

What were mesenchymal stem cells orginially named?

a subpopulation of bone marrow cells that can generate bone, cartilage and adipocytes in vitro--then it was thought that these bone marrow stromal cells could form other mesodermal tissues

23

What is the advantages of adult stem cells in regernative medicine?

can be autologous; ready to use

24

What is the disadvantge of using adult stem cells in regenerative medicine?

limited expansion; resitrcted cell potency- cannot generate all cell types

25

Where are pluripotent stem cells from in regenerative medicine?

inner cell mass of pre-implantation embryos -ESCs or from manipulation of somatic cell types- induced PSCs

26

What is an embryoid body?

aggregate of PSCs that have differentiated into the germ layers

27

What is the advantages of ESCs or PSCs in cell therapy?

can be expanded to a lrge amount of cell;s capable of generation of all cell types

28

What are the challenges of using ESCs or PSCs in cell therapy?

differentiation of specific cell types (what environment?) ; integration and survival of cells in vivo; immune rejection; tumorigenesis

29

How are PSCs induced to differentiate?

medium supplementation; co-culture; gene transduction

30

How can immune rejection be reudced?

stem cell bank; immune suppression; immune tolerance; reprogramming patietns own cells to pluripotent stem cells