Flashcards in Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Deck (53)
What is regenerative medicine?
repair of functionally compromised cells; tissues or organs by biological substitutes or stimulation of endogenous process
What are the advantages of using primary cells?
what are the disadvantages of using primary cells?
limited availability; low yield; poor growth rate
What is self-renewl?
a cell divides to generate daughter cells equivalent to the mother cell
What is cell potency?
rang of differentiation options availble to a cell?
Waht is a totipotent cell?
has the capacity to form an entire organsim
Give an example of a totipotent ell?
What is a multipotent cell?
can form multiple cell types that constitute the entire tissue or tissues
What is a pluripotent cell?
ablt to form all the body's cell lineages including germ cells
What can pluripotent cells not generate?
placenta and embryo
Give an eample of a multipotent cell?
haematopoietic stem cell
Give an example of a pluripotent cell?
human embryonic stem cell
Where are adult stem cells found?
tissue specific- only localise in one specific region of the tissue
What is the self-renewal capacity of adult stem cells?
niche-dependent (the environemtn of hte specific area where they are located), capable of life long self-renewal
Waht type of cell are adult stem cells?
What tumour are adult stem cells not able to form?
Where are hair follicle stem cells found?
only in bulge region of hair follicle
Where are intestinal stem cells found?
only at bottom of crypts
Where are haematopoietic stem cells found?
long-term stem cells: close to osteoblasts; short-term stem cells: mear to blood vessels
What were mesenchymal stem cells originally named stem cells?
a class of cells from human bone marrow and periosteum that can be isolated and expanded in cultre and induced to form a variety of mesodermal phenotypes and tissues
What is thought to be the function of mesenchymal stem cells now?
immunomodulatory and trophic- not multipotent stem cells
What were mesenchymal stem cells orginially named?
a subpopulation of bone marrow cells that can generate bone, cartilage and adipocytes in vitro--then it was thought that these bone marrow stromal cells could form other mesodermal tissues
What is the advantages of adult stem cells in regernative medicine?
can be autologous; ready to use
What is the disadvantge of using adult stem cells in regenerative medicine?
limited expansion; resitrcted cell potency- cannot generate all cell types
Where are pluripotent stem cells from in regenerative medicine?
inner cell mass of pre-implantation embryos -ESCs or from manipulation of somatic cell types- induced PSCs
What is an embryoid body?
aggregate of PSCs that have differentiated into the germ layers
What is the advantages of ESCs or PSCs in cell therapy?
can be expanded to a lrge amount of cell;s capable of generation of all cell types
What are the challenges of using ESCs or PSCs in cell therapy?
differentiation of specific cell types (what environment?) ; integration and survival of cells in vivo; immune rejection; tumorigenesis
How are PSCs induced to differentiate?
medium supplementation; co-culture; gene transduction