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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (290)
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1

Where do macrophages derive from?

progenitor cells that enter tissues during emrbyonic development and self-renew or from circulating monocytes

2

Where do the embyronic progenitors of macrophages derive from?

fetal liver; yolk sac or the aorta-gonad-mesonephros

3

What cytokine does self-renewal of microglial cells and Kupffer cells rely on?

IL-34

4

What receptor do classical monocytes express?

CD14

5

What receptors do patrolling monocytes express?

CD14 and CD16

6

What are the 3 methods by which pathogens can be taken into the cell?

phagocytosis; receptor-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis

7

What are the phagocytic receptors present on macrophages and neutrophils?

C-type lectin family; scavenger receptors; complement receptors; Fc receptors

8

what is the function of dectin-1?

recognises b-1,3-linked glucans

9

What cells are b-1,3-linked glucans found on?

fungi

10

Which cells express mannose receptor?

macrophages and denritic cells

11

What does the mannose receptor recognise?

mannosylated ligands

12

What is thought to be the function of mannose receptors?

mainly as a clearance recpetor for host glycoproteins which have mannose containing side chains and whose extra-cellular concentrations are raised during inflammation

13

What do scavenger receptors recognise?

anionic polymers and acetylated low-density lipoproteins

14

Give an emaple of a GPCR involved in pathogen recognition and killing?

fMet-Leu-Phe receptor ; Chemokine receptors

15

What amino acid usually initiates protein synthesis in bacteria?

fMet residue

16

What happens when fMLF binds its ligand?

activates intracellular signalling that direct the cell to move toward th e most concentrated source of hte ligand; induces production of ROS in the phagolysosome

17

What proteins are activated in response to f-Met-Leu-Phe activation?

Rho family of small GTAse proteins: Rac and Rho

18

What is the function of Rac in the assembly of NADPH oxidase?

promotes the movement of cytosolic compoenets of the enzyme to the phagolysosomal membrane and assmble the full enzyme

19

what is the function of NADPH oxidase?

generates superoxide- a reactive oxygen species (NAPH---NAP+ and H+)

20

What does the NADPH oxidase reaction cause?

a transient increase in oxygen consumption by the cell:respiratory burst- as the electron from NADPH oxidase reaction is transferred to oxygen

21

What does the respiratory burst cause?

generates superoxide anion within the lumen of hte phagolysosome

22

What enzyme converts the superoxide anion into hydrogen peroxide?

superoxide dismutase

23

What disease results from a genetic deficiency of NADPH oxidase?

chronic granulomatous disease

24

What type of infection are patients with CGD particularly susceptible to?

bacterial and fungal infections

25

What receptors synergise to activate Rac?

phagocytic recpetors and fMLF or C5a

26

How is the pH decreased in the phagolysosome?

potasssium and hydrogen ions are drawn into the phagolysosome to neutralise the charged superoxide ion

27

What does NET formation rely upon?

generation of ROS

28

What are monocytes attracted to a site of inflammation and activated called?

inflammatory monocytes

29

How are monocytes distinguished from macrophages?

monocytes lack of expression of the adhesion GPCR E1- F4/80

30

What 2 systems are activated by actiavted endothelial cells in resposne to infection/injury?

kinin system and coagulation system