Cell Death and immunological implications Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cell Death and immunological implications Deck (95)
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1

What are the functions of cell death in normal circumstances?

tissue homeostasis; embryogenesis; cell turn-over

2

What is type I cell death?

apoptosis

3

What characterises apoptosis?

nuclear fragmentation; shrinkage and membrane blebbing

4

what is type II cell death?

autophagy

5

What are the features of autophagy?

extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization and lysosomal degradation

6

What is type III cell death?

necrosis

7

What is necrosis?

an accidental death that causes damage

8

What are the features of necrosis?

passive; accidental:trauma; infections; swelling and loss of membrane integrity; evidence of inflammation

9

When may apoptosis cause inflammation?

end-stage apoptosis can have membrane pore formation and thus inflammation

10

What is seen in early apoptosis?

membrane relatively intact, exposure of phophatidylserine

11

what is karyorrhexis?

chromatin condensation

12

What is pyknosis?

nuclear fragmentation

13

What are hte morphological characteristics of apoptosis?

plasma membrane blebbing; mitochondrial depolarisation; nuclear and cytoplasmic condensation; apoptotic bodies

14

What is a biochemical marker of apoptosis?

phosphatidylserine flipping- changes from inner to outer leaflet of hte plasma membrane

15

How can DNA fragmentation be measured in the lab ?

DNA laddering- electrophoresis; DNA strain breaks by TUNEL assay

16

What is the difference between the caspase induced in intrinsic vs extrinsic pathways?

intrinsic pathway: caspase-9 and caspase 3; extrinsic pathway- caspase 8

17

What is necroptosis?

caspase-independent cell death

18

What protein does necroptosis rely on?

RIP1 kinase 3 (receptor interacting protein)

19

What receptors trigger necroptosis?

death receptors eg TNFR1

20

What events can trigger necroptosis?

inflammation; ischaemia-reperfusion injury; thrombosis

21

What is the inflammasome?

a pro-inflammatory protein formed after stimulation of NOD-like receptors, production of an active caspase in the complex processes cytokine proproteins into active cytokines

22

What triggers ferroptosis?

intracellular pertubation notably lipid peroxidation

23

Waht is ferroptosis characterised by?

iron dependent production of reactive oxygen species

24

Does ferroptosis rely on caspases?

no

25

What process in ferroptosis invovled in?

glutamate toxicity on neuron

26

What is pyroptosis characterised by?

cellular swelling and plasma membrane permeabilisation due to gasdermin protein family

27

What are the similarities and differences between pyroptosis and necrosis?

both are very inflammatory however pyroptosis is controlled and the cell doesn't burst

28

When doe spyroptosis arise?

after canonical and non-canonical activation of hte inflammasome (caspase 1, 3, 4 and 11)

29

What is found in the cytoplasmic domains of cytokine receptors?

JAKs

30

What transcription factors bind to phosphorylated JAKs on cytokine receptors?

STatS