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What is the "proximity-attraction principle"?

We tend to choose those individuals who we affiliate with. We chose the people from those nearby.


What is "functional distance" and how does it affect new relations?

It affects how often you run into someone and therefore, how often you interact with that person.


What is the "mere exposure effect"?

Merely being exposed to people’s face will make you like them. Liking of the person in the photograph increased with the number of exposures to the face.


What is "nonverbal mimicry"?

Whatever the confederate had been told to do - the participant did mimic the behaviour. In another study, when the confederate copied the participant’s movements, the participant liked the confederate more and rated interaction as smoother.


What is "likeness begets liking"?

New students strongly assorted into friend groups based on similar values and interests. It helps if you perceive to be alike even though you aren’t really alike.


What is "self-disclosure"?

Revealing intimate details of one’s life. Self-disclosure increases liking. You can form significant relationships based on self-disclosure.


What experiences affect whether one will feel attraction for another person?

Familiarity, misattribution of arousal and social comparison.


What is the term "misattribution of arousal"?

o People seemed to be more attracted/open to new people they met on a high nerve ragging bridge. This can be explained by that people were aroused by walking on the bridge. But the misinterpret the arousal and gave the new person the reason why and not the risky situation that the person was in.


What is "social comparison"?

Men were less attracted to women after they had seen a movie with pretty/attractive women in.


What is Kinsey's scale?

Sexual arousal as a function of self-reported sexual orientation.
People differ in degree rather than kind. Those on the left edge are exclusively heterosexual – those on the right as exclusively homosexual.

Sexual contact and sexual desire one have with same sex versus opposite sex person is how the scales run from one end to the other.


What are the issues with measuring people on the Kinsey's scale via self-report behavior?

o A lot of reasons why people would lie, or they would feel negative about themselves.
o Will show how the behavioral conditions have affected your sexual behaviour even though it isn’t your normally sexual orientation (for example, when people go to prison).


What are the issues with measuring people on the Kinsey's scale via self-report attraction?

The same as self-report behavior.


What are the issues with measuring people on the Kinsey's scale via experimentally measured arousal?

It is not objective measurement that privileges sexual arousal pattern as the meaning of sexual orientation.


What is the relation between males with a higher number of brothers and homosexuality?

These have higher than average incidents of homosexuality.


Why is there a relation between number of older brothers and homosexuality?

The challenges of being pregnant with a male fetes. The maternal immune system is more concerned with a male fetes because the XY-chromosome is somehow more readily identifiable as foreign.


Why do we self-represent?

* To obtain resources from others.
* A way of gaining control over one's life.
* To construct a self-image.
* Let other know how we expect to be threated.


When do we self-represent?

* When we perceive to be in the public eye.
* When observers control something we want.
* If we want to change the view others have on us.


When can self-representation failure happen?

If we don't have the mental ressources.


What are the four main strategies to get others to like us?

Expressing liking for others, creating similarity, making ourselves physically attractive, and projecting modesty.


What is ingratiation?

An attempt to get others to like us.


How do men and women differ in ingratiation?

Men are told to be industrious, accomplish things and seek status.

Women get told the importance of being likable and proper.


What is the multiple-audience dilemma?

Getting others to like us becomes particularly tricky when we want to simultaneously ingratiate ourselves with two audiences having opposite values.


What are four strategies to get others to view us as competent?

Staging performance, claiming competence, using the trappings of competence, and making excuses, claiming obstacles.


What are four strategies to convey high status and power?

Displaying the artefacts of status and power, conspicuous consumption, personal associations, and status and power in nonverbal expressions.


Who is most likely to display high status and power?



What are a domain-general models?

This is a model that attempts to explain all behaviour using some simple rules. It seeks to use a minimum number of presumptions to explain a broad range of phenomena.


What is the reinforcement-affect model (apart of domain-general model)?

People are motivated by the goal to feel good. We affiliate with, and come to like, people we associate with positive feelings.


What is social exchange (apart of domain-general model)?

The goal is to maximize the ratio of benefits to costs.


What are domains-specific models?

This model presumes that we think and feel very differently depending on the adaptive problem posed by particular kinds of relationships.


What is "tend and befriend"-response and who use it?

Some research has found that females are less likely to respond to stress with fight-or-flight behaviour. Instead, they “tend” (get their offspring out of harm’s way) and “befriend” (pull closer to other females).