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Dimensional conception?

What we use in this course. Expects a normal distribution. Few people at the extremes and a cluster of people in the middle.


Typological/categorical conception?

when you split people up in categories/types (for example, introversion vs extraversion). We will then expect few people at the extremes of each type and more people in the center of each type, and non-people in the middle between those two types.


What is the issue with categorical/typological?

The problem with typological conception is that it exaggerates a lot of the differences between people and fails to differentiate the more meaningful differences between people.


Lexical approach?

build on fundamental assumption. We might just assume that if a given behavior was important, humans would have noticed them and named/described them.


What can we get from combining lexical and statistical approach?

We can find the relevant words to describe traits and find the correlations between all of the descriptive words. Used to make the traits in the Big Five model.


The Big Five?

Extraversion, agreeableness, openness/intellect, neuroticism, conscientiousness


Def. of extraversion

enjoy interacting with others, are particularly sensitive to reward.


Def. of agreeableness

altruism, cooperation. Following socially norms, handling aggression, being kind.


Def. of openness/intellect

cognitively engaged and open to novel experiences and ideas.


Def. of neuroticism

low emotional stability. Emotional sensitivity to threat and punishment.


Def. of conscientiousness

the tendency to follow rules, set long-term goals and following them. Restraining wants and impulses.


What does it mean to label someone as one of the Big Five traits?

It doesn’t mean that they are the “extraverted” type for example – so she isn’t just that one characteristic. She just has that trait especially – but still has the other traits.


The 10 aspects of the Big Five

E.e (enthusiasm)
E.a (assertiveness)
A.p (politeness)
A.c (compassion)
C.o (orderliness)
C.i (industriousness)
N.v (volatility)
N.w (withdrawal)
O.o (openness)
O.i (intellect)


How does HEXACO differ from the Big Five?

Is an actually alternative to the Big Five and not like the other “alternatives”. This is the live alternative. Quite a few languages seem to fit better with the HEXACO model than the Big Five.
Also, it has one more factor.


How does the “Big Five vs Big Two (or Aspects)” question differ from the “Big Five vs HEXACO” question?

The big two (metatraits) should be seen as a higher-level organisation underlying the Big Five. Thinking of them as broader ways of functioning. Complementary rather than competitors to the Big Five.


What is the sixth factor called in the HEXACO model?



Why might a researcher use something other than the Big Five?

They should be used when the researcher has a different level of focus which is more appropriate to a certain study.


Do most personality psychologists think that traits are stable over time or not?

Most personality psychologists think that traits are almost stable over time and at least consistent over situations.


What are internal traits?

Individuals carry their desires, needs and wants from one situation to the next. The desires and needs are also seen as causal because they explain the behavior of the individuals who possess them. That means, one’s internal desire influences their external behavior.


What are external traits?

Descriptive summaries or act frequencies


What is personality coherence?

They believe in continuity in the underlying trait but change in the outward manifestation of that trait.


An example of "states" and what these are?

Vary across time and situations. Can be seen as within-subject variations of behavior. Emotions are prototypical examples of states.


What are the three key elements of act frequency?

Act nomination, prototypically judgement and the recording of act performance.


What is "act nomination"?

Procedure to find the acts that fit into which trait categories.


What is "prototypically judgement"?

Find the acts that are most central to each trait category.


What is "the recording of act performance"?

Securing information on the actual performance of individuals in their daily lives. They use self-reports or peer reports. People have a hard time giving an accurate estimate of their everyday behaviors.


What is a downside of act frequency?

It can be hard to see the traits that does not happen in everyday life.


What are the three fundamental approaches to identifying important traits?

Lexical approach, statistical approach, and theoretical approach.


What is the lexical approach?

It begins with the lexical hypothesis. It says that over many centuries, the differences among people that are important have been noticed by mankind, and words are invented to talk about those differences. It means that traits have been developed so people can talk together and about each other.


What is the statistical approach?

It consists of having a large number of people rate themselves on the items, then using a statistical procedure to identify groups or clusters of items.