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Flashcards in Lecture 9 Deck (35)
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What is intrasexual competition?

Attempts to exclude others of the same sex from competing for a possible mate. Like in the bachelor, if you do something to get other away from the person that you want to mate with. Get potential rivals away.


What is intersexual competition?

Attempts to make sure a possible mate chooses to mate with you.


What is the parental investment theory?

The theory says that the sex making the largest investment in offspring (via gamete production, lactation, nurturing and protection) will be the more discriminating sex (females). The sex that invests less will compete for sexual access to the higher investing sex (males).


Why are men more interested in casual sex than women?

The parental investment theory explains this because the male doesn’t really lose so much but the woman could end up pregnant!


What are some intrasexual sex differences?

Physical size has d around 1.6 which means that men are significantly taller than women. But it doesn’t necessarily mean that men have to be taller than women.
o Throw velocity d=1.6
o Sprinting d=0.6
o Grip strength d=0.7

Assertiveness had d=0.5

Physical aggression d=0.6


In which field (because of evolution) is women better than men?

Females show superior memory (episodic memory especially) and superior spatial location recall. This comes from back when female foragers had to learn the details of their surrounding area and remember the status of the various foraging sites.


In which field (because of evolution) is men better than women?

Male hunters need to anticipate movement and find their way home even though, they have just roamed through unfamiliar territory. This does that males exhibit superior spatial perception, especially mental rotation (d=0.7)


What is extraversion divided into (aspects)?

Assertiveness (dominant, outspoken, active)

Enthusiasm (sociable, playful, fun-loving)


What is agreeableness divided into (aspects)?

Compassion (warm, empathic, kind)

Politeness (considerate, unaggressive, compliant)


What is conscientiousness divided into (aspects)?

Industriousness (hard-working, self-disciplined)

Orderliness (neat, careful, punctual, thrifty)


What is neuroticism divided into (aspects)?

Volatility (temperamental, irritable, easily upset)

Withdrawal (anxious, depressed, vulnerable)


What is openness/intellect divided into (aspects)?

Openness (artistic, creative, perceptive)

Intellect (smart, intellectual, philosophical)


How does parental expectations create gender differences?

It seems like that if parents have lower expectations to their girl in math, she will perform slightly worse.

Male math confidence is much higher than female in the young years even though females outperform males through early elementary at math.


In which countries are gender differences more pronounced?

In countries that are more gender equal.


How might sex differences produced by evolution be obscured by social forces?

There is a quite substantial relationship between whether a given society tended to view females to belong in literature classrooms whether than the science classroom. And the degree that the females in those societies underperformed males on the relevant test.

It is clear that social forces can influence gender differences and can create some out of thin air. But you can’t say that most gender differences come from this.


How does a minimalist describe sex differences?

As small and inconsequential.


How does a maximalist describe sex differences?

The magnitude of sex differences is comparable to the magnitude of many other effects in psychology and should not be trivialized.


What is the socialization theory?

Boys and girls become different because notions of “masculinity” and “femininity” are reinforced by everyone around them.


What is the social role theory?

Sex differences exist because men and women are distributed differently into different occupational and family roles.


What are the hormonal theories?

Men and women differ not because of the external social environment but, rather, because the sexes have different underlying hormones.


When do women's sexual desire peak?

Just prior ovulation and the same goes for their testosterone level.


In which domains are men and women predicted to be the same?

In all the domains in which they have faced the same adaptive problems.


What is perceptual sensitivity and which sex is favored here?

The ability to detect subtle stimuli from the environment also showed a sex difference favoring girls.


What is surgency and which sex favors here?

A cluster including approach behaviour, high activity and impulsivity. Here there was found a sex difference favoring boys.


What were the sex differences in negative affectivity?

No sex differences.


How are the sex differences in extraversion?

Slightly favorable for men


How are the sex differences in agreeableness?

Women score as more trusting than men.
Women smile more.
Men tend to be more physically aggressive.

Large effect sizes.


How are the sex differences in consciousness?

A negligible sex difference favoring women on "order".


How are the sex differences in emotional stability?

Women score moderately lower than men.


How are the sex differences in intellect/openness?

No found difference.