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When does social facilitation happen?

In the presence of others. This enhances our arousal. That arousal strengthens our dominant responses which enhances behaviour that are easy for us and impair difficult behaviour.


What is the effect of social facilitation?

Effects of being observed.


What is the effect of social loafing?

Effects of being lost in a crwod.


When does social loafing happen?

In group performance tasks where individual contributions not easily identified, individuals contribute less. For example, when it is tug-of-war or shouting/clapping.


What is deindividuation?

The process of losing one’s sense of personal identity. It makes it easier to do
things that you don’t think people should actually do.


What is polarization?

Original differences between two groups will get them even more different, less like the population as a whole. More extreme views than before because they talk with like-minded people.


What are the two processes in polarization?

• Informational influence: hearing convincing arguments advocating for the same position. You will become an even stronger advocate for this.
• Normative influence: adopting views because they are held by others i.e. social comparison.


What is the idea behind groupthink?

The worst-case scenario. A group decision-making style characterized by an excessive tendency to seek concurrence. It is found in groups with high cohesiveness, homogenous members, isolation from outside influences, directive leadership, and unsystematic decision-making procedures.


What are some ways to interrupt group thinking?

Minority influence which is most possible when…
o minority signals fairness/impartiality
o minority holds to their main position steadily
o minority is not a minority of one
o if the decision is consequential


What will you be able to predict if groups are in the same factor?

Their opinion because they correlate.


What does it mean when you say that you economize when meeting a group, you're not a part of?

This means that you don’t invest much energy or time in these people.


What are the three factors about people's feelings towards different groups of society?

Derogated, dangerous and dissident.


How can contact work to reduce prejudice?

The person has to be a stereotype disconfirming member of the other group.
• When contact is supported by local norms.
• When status is equal in the contact setting.
• When contact occurs at the individual level rather than between two groups.
• When contact is rewarding.
• When contact involves collaborative work towards common goals rather than being competitive.


How can you reduce prejudice towards a group?

By shifting the threat that they perceived from that group by adjusting their perception of just how many there are around from their own team versus how many there are from the other team.


What is discriminate sociality?

The careful selection of social partners. A way to manage the benefits and costs of social life.


What are people's stereotypes often based on?

Intrasexual competition.


When will people focus more on blemished or disfigured faces?

When disease concerns are salient.


What are coalitions designed to?

To solve being dominated by a more powerful individual.


Who are more likely to distance themselves from foreigners?

People who feel most vulnerable to disease.


Why are females more ope to foreigners than men?

Ancestrally, females have left their home groups to find mates from other groups.


Is categorization of race an automatic and mandatory thing?

No, it is a reversible by-product of cognitive machinery that evolved to detect coalitional alliances.


What is prejudice?

The general attitude we have toward members of a particular group – how we feel about them.


What is stereotyping?

Generalized beliefs we hold about groups – beliefs that reflect what we think members of a particular group are like.


What is a stereotype threat?

The fear of confirming others’ negative stereotypes about one’s group.


What is the realistic group conflict theory?

Intergroup conflict emerges when groups find themselves competing for the same material resources. That makes people more solidary with their own group and lead them to dislike the other groups.


What is the social dominance orientation?

The extent to which a person wants his or her own group to dominate and be superior to other groups.


What is the minimal intergroup paradigm?

It shows that people often display an in-group bias, benefitting members of their own groups over members of other groups – even though the groups were minimally defined.


What is the self-fulfilling spiral of intergroup competition?

Competition and hostility breed increased competition and hostility.


True or false: religious people tend to be more prejudiced than others?



What is extrinsic religiosity?

These people see religious worship as an opportunity to make friends, gain status, or find support during difficult times.