Flashcards in Lecture 11 Deck (25)
What are the idea of "persons choose situations"?
Those people who have the strongest beliefs or attitudes will go to certain events – they will choose the situation.
What are the idea of "situations choose persons"?
Certain situations are prone to pick certain people with certain characteristics.
Why is "persons choose situations", and the other way around, important?
It can be a challenge when it comes to understanding whether or not the features of the person are really influential for a given outcome, or whether it is how situations choose certain people to be in certain situation, is what is important.
What are the four different approaches to social psychology?
Sociocultural, evolutionary, social learning, social cognition.
What is the sociocultural approach?
Behaviour is heavily influenced by one’s larger social groups.
What is the evolutionary approach?
Behaviour is heavily influenced mental mechanisms that lead to evolutionary success in the environment evolutionary aptness (EEA).
What is the social learning approach?
Behaviour is heavily influenced by the unique experiences of the individual, and what those experiences indicate about rewards and punishments.
What is the social cognition approach?
Behaviour is heavily influenced by how we process social information. For example, men tend to respond significantly higher when asked about importance of high income when asked amongst women than men.
What is internal validity?
Can we believe in claimed cause-effect relationship?
What is demand characteristics?
An experimental artifact where participants form an interpretation of the experiment's purpose and subconsciously change their behavior to fit that interpretation
What is external validity?
Does the observed relationship generalize to other situations?
What is the difference between type I and type II error?
Type I is false positive. Type II is false negative.
What is p-hacking?
How researchers could create false-positive results. You’re trying to get the P-value but not in the right way.
How do you prevent p-hacking?
• Justifications of sample sizes and only publishing studies with adequate samples
• Full reporting of all measures and participants assessed
• Pre-registration of studies.
• Provision of data for replication.
Which features of study were linked with great replication success?
• Cognitive psychology studies replicated almost twice as many times as social psychology studies did.
• The original p-value was small
• The original effect size was large
• The original result was not very surprising
• Replication was easy to conduct
What is the left-wing bias in social psychology?
Psychologists are overwhelming on the left-wing today. 14 people on the left for every person on the right.
Which effect does the left-wing bias have on psychology research?
There are unstudied ideas obscuring psychological truths. They couldn’t see stereotypes as anything but prejudices – so they couldn’t understand them as accurate vs inaccurate.
They once thought that prejudices uniquely exist among the right. Later study revealed liberal prejudice against conservative groups.
Errors undetected when biased against conservatives. When research says something negative about the left and positive about the right, they took longer to find the errors.
What is direct replication?
The attempt to recreate the conditions believed sufficient for obtaining a previously observed finding.
What are some methods to evaluate replication effect?
Who is a part of MTurk?
Workers around 30, overeducated, underemployed, less religious and more liberal.
What are the five fundamental motives behind goal-oriented behavior?
* To establish social ties.
* To understand ourselves and others.
* To gain and maintain status.
* To defend ourselves and those we value.
* To attract and retain mates.
What are descriptive methods used to?
Used to measure or record behaviors, thoughts, or feelings in their natural state. Hope to record behaviors without changing them in any way.
What are some descriptive methods?
Naturalistic observation, case studies, archives, surveys, psychological tests.
What are experimental methods used to?
Used to uncover the causes of behavior by systematically varying some aspect of the situation.