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What does Borderline personality look like?

Instability. The relationships tend to be intense, emotional and potentially violent. Strong fears of abandonment. Shifting views of themselves. Strong emotions. (high N, low A.p, low C)


What does Antisocial personality look like?

A pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others. (low A, low C, high N.v).
Less likely to cause the individual with antisocial behaviour distress as the people around them with distress – so it’s a disorder even though they don’t give distress to the individual.


What Big Five characteristics are popping up most across personality disorders?

N: .24
E: -.07
O: -.01
A: -.17
C: -.09
Aren’t the strongest associations in the world. But they’re not trivial and problematic in their consistency. Openness seems to be irrelevant.
Many of the disorders seem to be empirical challenged.


What is the general conception of a mental disorder according to DSM 5?

Usually associated with significant distress in social, occupational, or other important activities.
Has to reflect dysfunction, an impairment (making the life problematic for the person).


When is it not a mental disorder?

It is not a mental disorder if you have an expectable approved response to a common stressor or loss, such as the death of a loved one.


How does mental disorders look like in a typological conception?

If we look at borderline in a typological way, we imply that there are people with this disorder and people without. On a graph, it would have two “bumps” – people with and people without.


Why can't mental disorders be typological?

Treating personality disorders as representing different type of people don’t seem scientific right. It is having a certain number of differences and traits.
The dispute between the typological versus dimensional conception shows that there aren’t different types of people – those with disorders and those without (therefore, it can’t be categorical/typological).


Is the view on personality psychology typological or dimensional?

We’re moving towards dimensional perspective on psychopathology – especially on personality disorders.


The relation between the trait domains from DSM 5 and the Big Five.

Negative affectivity (Neuroticism)

Detachment (low Extraversion)

Antagonism (low Agreeableness)

Disinhibition vs compulsivity (low or high Conscientiousness)

Psychoticism (apophenia, openness) – the least relation to the Big Five. Not related at all to the intellect domain of Openness.


How can we think of personality disorders?

Personality disorders can be thought of as maladaptive variations or combinations of normal personality traits.


What are some big differences between "normal" people and people with a personality disorder?

* Extreme lack of motivation for intimacy.
* An exaggerated need for power over others.
* The extreme need to be superior and receive the praise of others.


What is moral insanity and what does it impair?

A person who did not suffer any impairment of intellect but was impaired in terms of feelings, temperament or habits.


What is a psychopathic personality?

Behaviour patterns that caused the person and the community to suffer.


How does the DSM-5 view a personality disorder?

As a durable and inflexible way of thinking and experiencing emotions that significantly and most often negatively affects how an individual functions in daily life.


What are the three clusters in the DSM-5 called?

Cluster A: the odd and eccentric.
Cluster B: the dramatic, emotional.
Cluster C: the anxious or fearful.


What are in the eccentric cluster?

Schizoid, schizotypal and paranoid personalities.


What is the schizoid?

Detached from normal social relations. No desire for intimate relationships or even friendships. No satisfaction from being part of a group. Few or no close friends. Choose hobbies that can be done and appreciated alone. The emotional life is typically constricted. Don’t respond to social cues. Indifferent to social interaction. (low E, high N.w)


What is the schizotypal?

Uncomfortable in social relationships, especially when involving strangers. Feel different from others. They don’t become less anxious as they become more familiar with a group because they’re suspicious of others. Odd and eccentric. Unusual perceptions that border on hallucinations. (high N, low E.e, high O.o, low O.i)


What are paranoid personalities?

Extremely distrustful of others and sees others as a constant threat. Don’t reveal personal information to others. ‘Mind your own business’. Constantly on the lookout for hidden meanings and disguised motivations in the comments and behaviours of others. Pathological jealousy. (high N, low A, low E.e)


What are in the dramatic or emotional cluster?

Psychopathy, antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic.


What is psychopathy?

People who are superficially charming and intelligent, but are also deceitful, unable to feel remorse or care for others, impulsive and lacking in shame, guilt and fear. Incapacity to feel guilt, a high degree of superficial charm or having callous social attitudes.


What is antisocial?

A pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others. (low A, low C, high N.v)


What is histrionic?

Excessive attention seeking and emotionality. Overly dramatic, preferring to be the centre of attention. Appear charming or even flirtatious. Inappropriately seductive or provocative. Express their opinions frequently and dramatically. Opinions are shallow and easily changed. Difficult to get along with, due to their excessive need for attention.


What is narcissistic?

Strong need to be admired, a strong sense of self-importance and a lack of insight into other people’s feelings. Undervalue the work of others. Believe they should receive special privileges and respect. Wants friends that are socially weak or unpopular. Unable to recognize the needs or desires of others. They have some
insight into their narcissistic personality. (low A, high N.v)


What are in the anxious or fearful cluster?

Avoidant, dependent and obsessive-compulsive.


What is avoidant personality disorder?

A pervasive feeling of inadequacy and sensitivity to criticism from others. Extreme fear of criticism or rejection from others. Restrict their activities to avoid potential embarrassments. Seen by others as meek, quiet, shy, lonely and solitary. Feelings easily hurt. Low self-esteem. (high N, low E, low C.i)


What is dependent personality disorder?

Seeks out others to an extreme. Excessive need to be taken care of, to be nurtured, coddled and told what to do. Needs lots of encouragement and advice from others. Rarely takes the initiative. Avoid disagreements. (high N.w, low C.i)


What is obsessive-compulsive personality disorder?

Preoccupied with order and strives to be perfect. Hold very high standards for themselves. Devotion to work at the expense of leisure
and friendships. Inflexible with regard to ethics and morals. Stubborn. (high C)