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Flashcards in Lecture 8 Deck (53)
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What is priming?

When a concept has been activated by repeatedly thinking about or perceiving it.
It can happen both from external events and from an individual’s personality.


What is chronic accessibility?

When an idea or concept comes easy to mind for an individual over a variety of stimuli and situations.
It only comes into play when relevant stimuli are present.


What is learned helplessness?

When a person is subjected to unpleasant and inescapable circumstances, animals (including humans), they can become passive and accepting of a situation.


What is entity theories?

Personal qualities such as intelligence and ability are unchangeable. The goal is demonstrating competence because you think that there is no way to increase your competence. When someone gets negative feedback on their abilities, there will come a helpless response because they don’t believe that they can increase the ability.


What is incremental theories?

Intelligence and ability can change with time and experience. The goals are both demonstrating and increasing competence.


What is judgment goals?

Seeking to judge or validate an attribute in oneself.
When failure, these people will response with helplessness.


What is developmental goals?

The desire to actually improve oneself.
When failure, these people will response with mastery-oriented behaviour.


What is Mischel's CAPS system all about?

Sees personality and cognition as interacted. It is not a single, linear, serial process. It is about how we feel, think and do that makes the difference processes.


When is "if... then... contingencies" used?

It is seen when the four cognitive person variables combine each individual for which behavior that person will do in a certain situation.


What is a basic emotion?

The most elemental emotions, they provide the foundation for all other emotions. Innate, fundamental. Cross-culturally universal among humans. Built-in way of expressing it.


What is a social emotion?

They are formed from blends of the basic emotions. By combining two or more basic emotions. Can be socially learned.


How did Ekman use facial expressions in his research?

He looked at facial expressions and found six different basic emotions: happy, sad, anger, fear, surprise, and disgust.
He also tested people who were totally isolated. They still used the same facial expressions as the more civilised countries.

"Fought" against Darwin.


How does the emotional circumplex derived from factor analytic studies contrast with Ekman’s approach?

More statistical approach where Ekman has a more analytic approach.
The model looks at if the emotion is positive or negative on one side and aroused or unaroused on the other side.

Differences to Ekman:
There is no difference in basic and social emotions.
Nothing at the centre of the circle.
The emotions are not thought to be different in kind to each other but different in flavoring.


What is the core idea of the “set point” conception of happiness?

An individual’s happiness is determined by their set point, a homeostatic degree of emotion that an individual typically experiences. It is influenced by genetics.

The happiness from winning the lottery is temporary.


Which of the Big Five traits give you a high set point?

People higher in extraversion (promotes happiness) and low neuroticism (detracts from happiness) give you a higher set point.


How is extraversion associated with happiness?

High extroverts are easiest to get in a good mood – easy to put someone high in neuroticism in a bad mood. Therefore, personality might cause happiness or unhappiness.


How is neuroticism associated with happiness?

Highly neurotic people will listen to bad news about themselves – not others nor good news about themselves. They're more prone to show rejection sensitivity.


What is the direct model between personality and emotional reactions?

That personality causes emotional reactions.


What is the indirect model between personality and emotional reactions?

Personality causes a person to create a certain lifestyle, and lifestyle causes emotion reactions


What is the idea of "emotional style"?

It is the "how" of the person's emotional life. The affect intensity.


What is the hedonic balance?

Hedonic balance between positive and negative emotions represents the content of emotional life.


What is emotional intelligence?

The idea that people differ in how well they understand emotion in oneself and in others.


How are the people who are low in emotional intelligence?

They have so little emotional awareness that they are virtually unable to think about or talk about their own feelings.


How are the people who are high in emotional intelligence?

More emotionally expressive, better personal relationships, tend to be optimistic, regulate their emotions, planning ahead.


What is personalizing cognition?

When a given stimuli or scene prompt someone to recall a similar event from one’s own life.


What is objectifying cognition?

When a given stimuli or scene prompt someone to recall objective facts about the stimuli.


What are the three levels of cognition?

Perception, interpretation, and conscious goals.


What is the Rod and Frame Test (RFT)?

Using this apparatus, the participant sits in a darkened room and is instructed to watch a glowing rod surrounded by a square frame, which is also glowing. The experimenter can adjust the tilt of the rod, the frame and the participant’s chair. The participant’s task is to adjust the rod by turning a dial, so that the rod is perfectly upright.


What will a person do in the RFT if they're field dependent?

if the participant adjusts the rod so that it is leaning in the direction of the tilted frame, then that person is dependent on the visual field.


What will a person do in the RFT if they're field independent?

When people disregard the external cues and use information from their bodies in adjusting the rod to upright. They rely on their new sensations.