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How does parental influence of attitude work?

o Information control: media they allow
o Modelling: mother’s attitudes towards food often mirrored by daughters
o Heredity
o Provide social context for their children: shaping their environment


How does peers influence attitudes?

o Information control: what one’s friends post on social media
o Modelling: substance abuse, sex for the first time and when you think it is okay to have


How does personal experience influence attitudes?

o Conditioning: if you do the same thing too many times, you will probably lose interest.


What is a direct way to measure attitude?

Scales: can use “bogus pipeline” to motivate honest responses. It is about convincing the person that you can tell when they’re lying so they might as well tell the truth.


What are the two indirect ways to measure attitude?

Psychological methods and unobtrusively observe behaviour.


What are physichological methods?

Electrodermal activity (skin response, sweat on fingertips), facial electromyography (minor muscle movements – brows = negative emotions, smile = positive emotions).


What are unobtrusively observe behaviour?

Watching how a person behaves in certain situations. Doing it in a setting that the researcher construct.


What is the difference between explicit and implicit attitudes?

Explicit attitudes are consciously held, controlled processing. Implicit attitudes are unconsciously held, automatic processing.


How can explicit attitudes be measured?



How can implicit attitudes be measured?

Can be measured indirectly via the implicit association test. Can’t be measured directly because they’re unconscious!


What is the "who said what to whom"-model?

The model is used when changing attitudes via persuasion.


What is the "who" in the "who said what to whom"-model?

This is the source characteristics - who's doing the convincing. These characteristics are competence, trustworthiness, sleeper effect (when the source is forgotten but the message is remembered).


What is the "what" in the "who said what to whom"-model?

The message characteristics such as fear, not obvious, quality, and length.


What is the "whom" in the "who said what to whom"-model?

The target characteristics such as distracted individuals are easier to persuade and need for cognition.


What is the central route to persuasion?

Getting people to consider the quality of the argument. It is enhanced by personal relevance and general cognitive engagement. Ability also matters – if people have the time and cognitive resources to understand.


What is the peripheral route to persuasion?

Convincing people via surface features of argument. For example, length of argument, expert advocate. Will probably not last as long as via central route. Can be undermined more than central route persuasion.


What is the relation between mood and persuasion?

Low mood indicates problems in your world, and then inspires attention and effort to adopt correct positions.


What is cognitive dissonance?

The discomfort you get when recognizing an inconsistency among one’s attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs.
• People will try to remove this discomfort by shifting their attitudes, behaviors, or beliefs.


What is the definition of conformity?

How somebody changes in behaviour or beliefs to fit with others.


What is the chameleon effect?

The tendency to mimic those we are engaging with - to get conformity.


What are some of the moderators on conformity?

Size of crowd.
Independent sub-groups.
Unanimity (enstemmighed).
Cohesion (conform with one group).
Cultural differences (higher in collectivistic countries).


What is the definition of compliance?

Publicly acting in accord with an explicit or implied request despite private disagreement. Getting people to act publicly in the way we want them to even though the disagree.


What is the norm of reciprocity?

(A way to inspire compliance): this is a social norm to repay any kindness received.


What is reciprocal favors?

You have to repay even though you didn’t need/wanted what that person gave you.


What is reciprocal concessions?

The door-in-the-face technique and that's-not-all technique.


How does the foot-in-the-door technique work?

Compliance with initial, smaller request increases compliance with larger, later request.


How does the low ball technique work?

Inspire commitment with a low price, then raise price. Used especially with car salesmen.


How does the bait-and-switch technique work?

Gain commitment, then make original arrangement unavailable, offer less desirable replacement – like dating apps.


How does the labelling technique work?

Assign target a positive trait label to encourage behaviour consistent with that label.


What is the definition of obedience?

Acting in accord with a direct order or command.