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1

What did Darwin think were the two functions of emotion expression?

1. Preparing the organism to respond adaptively to environmentally recurrent stimuli.
2. Communicating social information.

2

What are the two stage model of emotion-expression evolution?

It is a emotion-expression model with the two functions: adaption (emotion expressions for physiological regulation) and exaptation (emotion expressions for social communication).

3

What is "adaption" in the two stage model of emotion-expression evolution?

For example, that the widened eyes of individuals instructed to pose a fearful facial expression were found to increase the scope of their visual field and the speed of their eye movements, allowing expressers to better identify objects in the periphery.

4

What is "exaptation" in the two stage model of emotion-expression evolution?

Emotion expressions began as cues – providing information about internal states but not existing for that reason – but eventually transformed, in both form and function, to become signals.

5

What is the first law of behavior genetics?

All human behavioral traits are heritable.

6

What is the second law of behavior genetics?

The effect of being raised in the same family is smaller than the effect of genes

7

What is the third law of behavior genetics?

A substantial portion of the variation in complex human behavioral traits is not accounted for by the effects of genes or families.

8

What is behavior genetics the study of?

The study of the manner in which genetic variation affects physiological phenotypes (traits).

9

What is the fourth law of behavior genetics?

A typical human behavioral trait is associated with very many genetic variants, each of which accounts for a very small percentage of the behavioral variability.

10

What does a stronger relationship between genetic and phenotypic similarity imply?

A greater influence of the measured SNPs on the trait of interest.

11

What does "population stratification" mean?

If a SNP is more common in individuals of a certain ancestry or region, then it may falsely appear that the SNP is associated with a trait when the trait is actually associated with a pattern of ancestry or region of origin.

12

Is there one gene that are for one complex trait or another?

NO! Most genetic variability in behaviour between individuals is attributable to genetic differences that are each
responsible for very small behavioral differences.

13

What is politics designed to solve?

The coordination problems that emerge from group living.

14

What are stronger males more likely to do in politics?

Stronger males are more likely to solve international conflicts of interests with war, more likely to advocate for policies that favor their own group, and more likely to support policies that are aligned with their economic self-interest.

15

What is the key tool for political power?

To form and join coalitions (alliance) with others.

16

How can a coalition without a competent leader affect the status of the party?

This is a weak coalition and could down regulate the assessed status of the party in the eyes of the in-group, out-group, and those inaffiliated.

17

What can happen after negative campaigning?

Negative campaigning can backfire and lead supporters to rally around their candidate in anger.

18

What shall human leaders exchange for power and privileged access?

They're expected to coordinate solutions to collective problems of the coalitions.

19

Why do leaders need to cater to the interests of the followers or be overthrown?

Humans can readily form coalitions and engage in coalitional action – therefore, no individual would ancestrally have been able to completely dominate a collective of individuals.

20

What is voting equivalent to?

Voting is essentially a coalitional action and equivalent to taking sides in a competition.

21

When will people view political authority as legitimate?

When the leaders pursue the follower's interest.

22

Where are stable democracies more likely to appear?

Resourceful countries with low rather than high levels of ethnic heterogeneity, suggesting that people primarily accept political authority that benefits their own ethnic coalition.

23

What will happen if politicians' personal choices are at odds with their political positions?

People will outrage!

24

What are one of the strongest predictors of vote choice in modern elections?

Perceptions of the competence of political candidates.

25

What do people perceive low-pitched voices as?

Indicative of physical prowess and strenght.

26

Do people favor features that ancestrally would have increased the leader’s ability to solve the problems facing the coalition?

YES!

27

Which leader do people prefer in times of war?

A leader with masculine, dominance-related physical traits.

28

Which leader do people prefer in times of peace?

Competent-looking, feminine individuals.

29

What do modern-day politicians use persuasion to?

To promote their policies, and that information communicated by media and political elites can induce opinion change among the public.

30

What are two persuasion strategies?

Framing and moralization.