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What are the two general systems in animals (mating)?

• In the first one, males are uninvolved. Here, females attend to mate genetic quality and male pre-copulatory gifts.
• In the second one, males are involved. Here, females attend to male genetic quality and the male ability to assist in the rearing of the child.


What is serial monogamy?

Exclusive sexual and romantic relationships which may be terminated and serialized. You will have one partner and only show-off one partner.


What is extreme monogamy?

Extremely rare. Betrothal before reproductive age. No serialization. You know who you are with before you could initiate a relationship on your own.


What is polygyny?

One male has exclusive sexual access to more than one female.


What is polyandry?

One female has exclusive sexual partnerships with multiple males (very rare).


When are there more polygynist culture than monogamy (animals)?

When the size difference between men and female was big.


What is concealed ovulation?

We have concealed the visual aspect for women to show if they’re ready to get pregnant or not. Concealed ovulation changes the minimum time spent that men can impregnant their women.


What is the relation between tipping lapdancers and being fertile?

One study showed that men tipped female lap-dancers much more when they are fertile.


What are males jealous of?

Males are more concerned about sexual infidelity – because of paternity uncertainty. Males are not confident that they are the father of that child in the same way as women know that they are the mother.


What are females jealous of?

Females are more concerned than males about emotional infidelity because they’re afraid of loss of co-parent.


How do males and females try to preserve their pair-bonds?

• People in relationships tend to ignore or devalue outside options.
• Individuals more committed to current partners more likely to derogate potential alternative partners on range of characteristics.
• Regulating yourself. Keeping your eyes on the price!


What is "display of resources"?

The use of display of resources is a way to try to preserve partners interest used by men. Males do this more when partners are young and attractive.


When is appearance enhancement used?

Females are more likely to engage in this than men. This engagement varies with characteristics of the potential partner.


What is sociosexual orientation?

It accesses differences in the degree to one will have sex outside of a committed relationship. Restricted versus unrestricted.


How much of sociosexuality is heritable?

Maybe around 50 % for both men and women.


Which Big Five traits do unrestricted people tend to be lower in?

Agreeableness, conscientiousness and maybe neuroticism.


Is the environmental influence unique or shared?

Unique. Aspects that are different within a family is the unique environmental influence.


Are males more or less restricted than females in sociosexual orientation?

• Males have a less restricted sociosexual orientation than females. This is showed in the study where random people ask a random person if they want to go on a date, come to their place, or go to bed with them?


Which males are more likely to participate in unrestricted mating?

Males who are physically attractive are more likely to participate in unrestricted mating. Also predictive are mates with high value. Other predictors include high self-perceived ability to attract mates and high circulating testosterone.


If there are fewer men around, there are less...

committed relationships.


What will the dating norm reflect when they're fewer women than men around?

The women's preferences (restricted mating).


Which women pursue unrestricted orientation?

Unrestricted sociosexual orientation most commonly pursued by those who grew up with cues to environmental uncertainty/stress. “Men in my particularly context can’t be trusted or relied on”.


When are females more likely to engage in unrestricted relationships?

When there are few males per female.


Which three distinct emotion systems are mating behavior guided by?

Lust, attraction and attachment.


When do people feel less positively for their current partner?

After being exposed to attractive alternative partners.


What are the two ways people in relationships buffer from the lure of attractive alternatives?

They tend to perceive attractive opposite sex individuals as less appealing, and they simply don't pay attention to the opposite sex.


When are men most likely to divorce their woman?

When wives have engaged in sexual infidelities.


What is the "estrus"?

A phase scientist thought where women were fertile and willing to sexual intercourse. But now scientists have found out that women do not possess a discrete, finite phase of classic estrus but are sexually proceptive and receptive across the cycle.


Does women's sexual interests change across the cycle?

Yes, just prior to ovulation.


When women's conception risk increases...

their preference for the scent of symmetrical men increases.