Flashcards in Endocrine Disorders (Part 1) - Unit 3 Deck (62)
The endocrine system controls and manages _____. What else?
Metabolism, along with energy production, growth, fluid and electrolyte balances, stress response (hey hey cortisol), reproductive system
Many hormones depend on other hormones for their release. T/F?
What are some hormones that don't rely on others for their release?
Insulin, glucagon, parathyroid, antidiuretic, aldosterone, etc.
Aldosterone ---- decreased potassium --- increased Na+, H20 - T/F?
What are the two lobes of the pituitary gland?
Anterior and posterior
What does the anterior pituitary do?
Master gland! Stimulation and inhibition of tropic hormones.
What does the posterior pituitary do?
Secretes ADH and oxytocin
How many hormones does the pituitary secrete?
9 vital hormones
Hypopituitarism - what is it?
Absence or decreased secretion of pituitary hormones
What can hypopituitarism lead to?
Gonadotropin deficiency, growth hormone deficiency, TSH deficiency, corticotropin deficiency
What are some causes of hypopituitarism?
#1 = tumors that are typically easy to treat (vision changes, too!), encephalitis, radiation, head trauma (especially to the base of skull), congenital hypoplasia
Starvation also effects pituitary gland - T/F?
True - girls with anorexia can have this disease, too.
Growth failure is an absolute heigh of __ standard deviations for age OR a linear growth velocity consistently less than __ standard deviation for age.
What's the difference between short stature and growth failure?
SS = they were always short.
Growth failure = they were fine and suddenly stopped growing.
Growth hormone deficiency is frequently associated with other pituitary hormone deficiency, mainly......
TSH and ACTH
Most children who have short stature have growth hormone deficiency. T/F?
FALSE - most is idiopathic.
What are some clinical manifestations of hypopituitarism?
Normal growth during the 1st year, then growth that slows to below the 3rd percentile, affects height more than weight (may look overweight!), normal skeletal proportions, premature aging (fine wrinkles around eyes!), lack of growth directly related to degree and length of hormone deficiency
Why would a child with GH deficiency have teeth that look like they're all jam packed in there?
The jaw isn't growing properly, so the teeth are all crowded.
Skeletal survey in children under age ___.
Bone age study in children over _____.
What about bone age study?
3 & 3
Hand-wrist centers are looked to determine ossification, delayed in hypopituitarism but consistent with growth delay.
Hypopitutiarism - definitive diagnosis is based on absent or decreased pituitary reserves. T/F?
We can just get it from one sample? T/F?
What levels are used?
FALSE - we cannot.
We use IGF 1
GH secretion - stimulated by being awake. T/F?
FALSE - stimulated by sleep.
How do we treat hypopituitarism?
Treat any underlying causes, growth hormone replacement (synthetic), 6-7 times per week and it's a SC injection that's super fucking expensive.
When do we give growth hormone? Stop? (Ages)
boys start 12-13 and stop ~16.
Girls start 12-13 and stop 14-15
What was Turner's Syndrome originally called?
Turner's Syndrome - What is it? __ XO (#) Missing what?
45 XO - missing part or whole X chromosome
Turner's Syndrome - normal growth until the age of ___.
Turner's - no delay of sex characteristics. T/F?
FALSE - there is.
How do we manage Turner's syndrome?
Growth hormone, estrogen (age 10-12)
What are some clinical manifestations of turner's syndrome?
Webbing on the neck, short stature, low hairline, shield shaped thorax, widely spaced nipples, shortened metacarpal IV, small fingernails, brown spots, skin fold, constriction of aorta, poor breast development, elbow deformity, rudimentary ovaries, no menstruation