Flashcards in Care of the child with a cardiovascular disorder - Part 1 - Unit 4 Deck (57)
Left side is normally a lower pressure - T/F?
FALSE - it is normally higher pressure. It has to pump out to the rest of the body!
which part of the fetus requires the most oxygen?
when the newborn infant takes his first breath, the result is (increased or decreased?) pulmonary blood flow and (increased or decreased?) pulmonary vascular resistance.
O2 is the least potent vasodilator in the world. T/F?
FALSE - MOST potent.
before birth, which side of the heart has the higher pressures?
why is the systolic BP of the neonate low?
Decreased systemic vascular resistance!
increased pressure in the left atrium causes the foramen ovale to close. T/F/
when does the ductus arteriosus (the one that connects the pulmonary trunk/aorta) close?
10-15 hours after birth.
PERMANENTLY by 10-21 days.
What causes the ductus arteriosus to constrict and close?
MORE O2! so, it can OPEN with hypoxia/stress/cold/etc.
kids - lower risk of heart failure than adults. T/F?
FALSE - higher risk, because kids are really sensitive to pressure changes.
cardiac cath - can be used for diagnosis and intervention. T/F/
True - a way to obtain pressure, open things/close things. etc.
Cardiac cath - thread through vein to get where? artery?
however, can you use a vein to get to the left side?
Vein = right side of heart.
Artery = left side of heart.
are there risks to a cardiac cath?
YES - hemorrhage, infection, puncture problems, clotting issues, etc.
what should be monitored after a cardiac cath?
pulses (distal), temp/color, vitals, bleeding, may need to keep extremity straight, increased HR before BP falls (hemorrhage)
what is the cardiac output?
Measures heart's efficiency - volume of blood pumped by the heart in one minute = = = = SV X HR = CO
In peds, the SV always changes - T/F?
FALSE - the SV does not change, the HR just rises and rises and rises - or falls falls falls.
A fast heart rate always increases the CO - T/F?
Blood flows from areas of __ pressure to ___ pressure.
High to low..aka, the path of least resistance!
Normally, the resistance in the pulmonary circulation is ___ than the resistance in the systemic circulation.
The oxygen saturation of blood in the right atrium is normally ____ than the oxygen saturation in the left ventricle.
What is CHF?
Congestive heart failure - a condition in which the heart cannot pump adequate amounts of oxygenated blood to meet the metabolic needs of the body. It's a SYMPTOM that the heart is working too hard.
What are some changes caused by heart failure?
Volume overload, pressure overload, decreased contractility, high cardiac output demands, fluid overload, pneumonia, sepsis, defects, cardiomyopathy, etc.
What are the two types of heart failure?
right & left sided.
What is right sided heart failure?
Right ventricle does not efficiently pump blood into the pulmonary artery, so RV pressure increases and the ride side of the heart becomes congested and backs up into the veins - leading to hepatomegaly and edema. RIGHT IS TIGHT!
what is left sided heart failure?
LV does not efficiently pump blood into the circulation.
Increased pressure in the left atrium and pulmonary veins....leading to pulmonary edema!
Left is lungs!
what are some causes of CHF in children?
Structural abnormalities, myocardial failure, excessive demands on the normal heart muscle
What are some compensatory mechanisms of the heart?
Hypertrophy and dilation of cardiac muscle (more tension = more pressure), dilation increases stretch of the fibers, and then stimulation of sympathetic nervous system - catecholamines are released and they increase force and rate of contraction.
stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system results in creased systemic vascular resistance - T/F?
FALSE - increase! So, BP goes up! Non vital organs don't get blood flow!
What are 3 major clinical assessment findings for CHF we will find?
Impaired myocardial function, pulmonary congestion, systemic vascular congestion.