Flashcards in Renal - (Part 1) - Unit 3 Deck (61)
What percent of nephrons are present at birth?
Kidneys control volume and composition of ECF and ICF, and control transfer of fluids and solutes across cell membrane. T/F?
What are some electrolytes involved in the kidney's?
H+, Na, K+, CL-, Bicarb, Sulfate, Phosphate
What are the 2 hormones involved in balancing fluid and electrolytes?
ADH and Aldosterone
Tubules are more permeable to water when large concentrations exist ------> very concentrated urine ----> ____ (which hormone)
Is it ADH or aldoesterone that works on distal tubules to change urine concentration by increased NA reabsorption?
A high concentration of ______ increases Na and fluid reabsorption by tubules and decreases Na and fluid excretion in urine (also increases excretion of potassium)
If more sodium is excreted than ingested, the result will be what? (2 things)
Fluid retention OR dehydration
The amount of sodium reabsorbed controls the amount of fluid reabsorbed. T/F?
The kidney's produce ____-stimulating factor, which is involved in stimulating the production of red blood cells.
"I am stimulated when blood volume decreases, blood pressure decreases, or when catecholamine secretion increases. What am I?"
Renin - renin stimulates angiotensins which increases BP and stimulates aldosterone production
What are the four parts of the renal system?
Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra
What are some renal differences in kids?
Shorter urethra (organisms can reach the bladder easily), kidneys are less able to concentrate urine and less effective at acid/base balance until the age of 2, GFR is immature until the teen years.
The young infant has an excessively high rate of glomerular filtration - T/F?
FALSE - GFR and reabsorbtion are very low in infants and young children.
Infants are prone to metabolic acidosis because they have low blood bicarb levels and they do not excrete hydrogen ions easily - T/F?
If H+ builds up, blood becomes more alkalotic. T/F?
The entire urinary tract should be free of microorganisms. T/F? If not, where?
FALSE - the lower third of the urethra usually has bacteria.
UTI's - where? Caused by what?
Upper and/or lower urinary tract. Can be bacterial, viral, or fungal.
UTI's - ALWAYS symptomatic. T/F?
FALSE - not always.
E-coli - usually the causative agent for UTI's. T/F?
UTI's - one of the biggest causes is urinary stasis. T/F?
Yup, usually due to neurogenic bladder or voluntarily holding in urine.
What is the peak age of urinary tract infections if not due to a structural defect?
In ALL age groups, females are more likely to have a UTI. T/F?
FALSE - males under 1 months are more likely to have a UTI due to increased structural abnormalities in this age group.
Other than a longer urethra, males are at a decreased risk for UTI's due to what?
Prostate secretions that have anti-bacterial properties
Constipation increased the risk for UTI - T/F?
True - pushes on bladder and causes urinary stasis.
What are some manifestations of a UTI?
Fever, incontinence, foul smelling urine, frequency/urgency/dysuria, abdominal or flank pain, hematuria, but can be vague in kids under age 2 OR look like GI illnesses.
UTI - can be more serious, including high fever, leukocytosis, flank pain, and often pyelonephritis. T/F?
How do we diagnose a UTI?
History and physical, urinalysis, urine culture (at least one bacteria in gram stain)
How do we collect a clean catch from a girl?
Have her sit backward on the toilet - makes it easier to collect and helps her relax and separates the labia