Flashcards in Hematology/Oncology - Part 2 - Unit 4 Deck (55)
What is the purpose of the immune system?
What are the primary lymphoid immune system organs? Secondary?
Differentiates self and non-self.
Primary - thymus, bone marrow, liver.
Secondary - lymph nodes, spleen, gut associated lymphoid tissue.
What is the difference between nonspecific and specific immune function?
Nonspecific - activated on exposure to any foreign substance, reacts the same regardless! Phagocytosis, neutrophils/monocytes.
Specific is humoral immunity and involves antibody production and complement - B lymphocyte. Differentiates!
What is cell mediated immunity?
Involves a variety of specific functions mediated by the T lymphocyte. Occurs within the cells! Includes cytotoxic t cells, helper T cells, and suppressor T cells. Protection against viral/fungal/protozoan infections and slow-growing infections such as TB. Rejection, etc.
HIV - primarily infections subset of ___ lymphocyte.
What are some symptoms of HIV?
Diarrhea, growth delay (length and weight), lymphadenopathy, recurrent opportunistic infections, autoimmune disorders, and persistent oral candidiasis, neurological impairment.
When is testing done for HIV (think kids!)
Birth, 3/6/12/18 months.
What are therapy goals for HIV?
Slow the growth of HIV, promote/restore normal G&D, prevent complication infections and cancers, improve quality of life, prolong survival.
What are some ways to prevent transmission of HIV?
AZT therapy, avoiding breastfeeding, standard precautions, discourage high risk behaviors, minimize exposure to infections, nutritional support, psychological support, education, avoid live vaccines, etc.
What is SCID?
defect characterized by absence of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Unknown cause.
How do we treat SCID?
what are some symptoms of cancer?
Pain, fever, bruising, headache/vomiting, vision changes
What are some treatment options for cancer?
Biopsy, removal, chemo, radiation, biologic response modifiers, bone marrow transplant
What are some complications of cancer therapy?
Tumor lysis syndrome, superior vena cava syndrome, spinal cord compression, DIC
What is tumor lysis syndrome? Treatment?
Electrolyte imbalances (hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphophatemia, hypocalcemia) - might need fluids, etc. Treatment includes hydration, allopurinol, NaHCO3, dialysis.
What is superior vena cava syndrome? Symptoms? Treatment?
Swelling of face/arms/chest, cough, SOB, pain. Treatment = chemo, radiation, blood thinners for clots.
What are some side effects of cancer therapy?
Infection, hemorrhage, anemia, N/V, altered nutrition, neurologic problems, hemorrhagic cystitis, alopecia, steroid effects.
What is leukemia?
Non-functional blast cells, cannot fight infection, and they multiply continuously. This affects the bone marrow so they have anemia, thrombocytopenia, immunosuppression.
Acute leukemia - ALL - most common or least common?
Peak onset - __ to __ years.
Boys more than girls?
What is AML?
Acute myelogenous leukemia. Similar between genders. Higher rates in less than 2 years. 40-50% cure rate.
How do we treat leukemia?
IV Chemo, divided into phases.
What are the 5 phases of leukemia treatment?
Induction - getting blasted with chemo.
Intensification - different meds.
Consolidation - less chemo.
Delayed intensification - another blasting!
Maintenance - some IV meds...
what does hodgkin's lymphoma include?
Reid steinburg cells. Diagnosed by Ct/MRI, bone scan, etc.
How do we treat hodgkin's lymphoma?
Chemo, radiation, etc.
Do non-hodgkin's lymphoma patients have the reid steinburg cells?
Non-hodgkins lymphoma - also classified by what?
Cell - t-cell, b-cell, non-t, non-b, etc.
Brain tumors - 60% are infratentorial - four types?
Brainstem glioma, infratentorial ependymoma, cerebellar astrocytoma, medulloblastoma, etc.
Brain tumors - 40% supratentorial - four types?
Craniopharyngioma, optic nerve glioma, cerebral astrocytoma, ependymoma, s/s related to their anatomic location/size.
what are the functions of the cerebrum?
Composed of the right/left hemispheres. Initiation of movement, coordination of movement, temperature, touch, vision, hearing, judgment, reasoning, problem solving and learning.
what are the functions of the brainstem?
sensory, movement of eyes, body temp, cardiac function, consciousness, involuntary muscle movement, etc.