Flashcards in Respiratory Dysfunction (Part 3, Asthma) - Unit 2 Deck (32)
Asthma - most common chronic disease of childhood. T/F?
What is asthma?
Chronic inflammatory disorder of airways - bronchial hyperresponsiveness to a variety of irritants due to inflammation.
Asthma - continuous. T/F/
FALSE - episodic and can go away and come back at the drop of a hat.
What are the 4 asthma categories?
Intermittent, mild persistent, moderate persistent, severe persistent
When does asthma occur with intermittent asthma?
Symptoms less than twice weekly, no nighttime symptoms for ages 0-4, less than twice monthly for ages 5-11, peak expiratory flow greater or equal to 80% of expected value.
Mild persistent asthma - when?
Symptoms occur twice weekly but not daily.
Nighttime symptoms occur 1-2 times monthly for ages 0-4 and 3-4 times monthly for ages 5-11.
Peak expiratory flow greater than or equal to 80% of predicted value.
Moderate persistent asthma - when?
Symptoms occur DAILY
nighttime symptoms occur 3-4 times monthly for ages 0-4 and more than once a week but not daily for ages 5-11.
Peak expiratory flow 60-80% of expected value
Severe persistent asthma - when?
Symptoms occur throughout the day, nighttime symptoms are frequent, peak expiratory flow
Asthma - can occur hours after exposure. T/F?
Asthma - heightened airway reactivity due to inflammation. T/F?
What is the asthmatic response? (Think patho)
Antigen is deposited on respiratory mucosa ---> immune response is initiated ---> IgE attaches to mast cells and basophils ---> histamine, leukotrienes, serotonin and other mediators are released.
Air trapping - occurs in asthma. T/F?
Chronic inflammation that leads to permanent damage to the structures of the airway is referred to as what?
What are some risk factors for asthma?
Age, atopy (predisposition to allergic reactiosn), heredity, gender (boys), mother
What are some manifestations of asthma?
Dyspnea, wheezing, coughing, chest tightness and/or pain, symptoms may worsen at night, irritability, restlessness
It is easier to detect an asthma attack in an infant - T/F? Why?
FALSE - well it's not labeled as asthma until 2 years old..ha, trick question!
What are some long-term control meds for asthma?
Inhaled corticosteroids, cromolyn sodium and nedocromil, long-acting B2 agonists, methylxanthines, leukotriene modifiers, long-term bronchodilators (serevent)
What are some quick-relief (rescue) meds for asthma?
Short acting beta2 agonists, anticholinergics, systemic corticosteroids
If giving theyphylline (a Nonselective phosphodisterase enzyme inhibitor) for asthma, what do we monitor?
How are most drugs for asthma given?
They are inhaled. MDI with a spacer is best! Sometimes a nebulizer is used as well.
Inhaled steroids have little long term effects. T/F?
What does cromolyn sodium do?
It's a mast-cell stabilizer that interferes with mediator release and stops acute airway narrowing after exercise.
Beta 1 blockers affect..
Beta 2 blockers affect..
1 = heart (1 heart!)
2 = lungs (2 lungs!)
What are some beta-adrenergic agonists?
Albuterol, xopenex, terbutaine - they are for acute exacerbations and bind with beta receptors on smooth muscles allowing relaxation of smooth muscle.
What is the name of a long-acting beta 2 agonist? What ages should get it?
Salmeterol - 12 and above!
What do the leukotriene modifiers do? Drug names?
They stop inflammation and bronchospasm.
Zafirulkast (Accolate) and Montelukast Sodium
What are the anticholingerics? What are they used for?
Atropine, Ipratropium - relief of acute bronchospasm.
What is omalizumab (xolair)? When/where is it given?
Monoclonal antibody, stops IgE from binding to mast cells - Given SQ 1-2 times monthly.
What is magnesium sulfate used for? given how?
Muscle relaxant that decreases inflammation - given IV