18. Urinary System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 18. Urinary System Deck (75)
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1

How many segments in a nephron/kidney?

5

2

Functional unit of kidney

Nephron

3

Macrophages of kidney

Mesangial cells

4

Pathway of filtration in a nephron

Afferent BV > Glomerulus > PCT > Loop of henle > DCT > collecting ducts

5

Made up of bowman’s capsule and glomurular capillaries

Renal corpuscle

6

Lining of renal tubules (mostly)

Simple cuboidal epithelium

7

BQ: What are the filtering units of the glomerulus?

Podocytes

8

Clusters of capillaries where blood is filtered

Glomerular capillaries or glomerulus

9

Glomerular filtration rate

125mL/min

10

2/3 (60-70%) of filtrate are reabsorbed here

Proximal convoluted tubule

11

PCT: Active transport

Glucose, amino acid, Na

12

PCT: for water reabsorption (facilitated diffusion)

Aquaporins

13

BQ: Has counter current mechanism

Loop of henle

14

“Concentrating segment”
- because water goes out here

Thin descending segment of loop of henle

15

“Diluting segment”
- because solutes or electrolytes go out here

Thick ascending segment of loop of henle

16

Wall is very permeable to water
- water comes out due to HIGH osmotic pressure in medulla

Thin descending segment

17

Not permeable to water
Has ion pumps that pumps out (Na, Cl, K) ions out and towards the medulla

Thick ascending segment

18

Normally not permeable to water
Changes its function depending on the hormone present
(Aldosterone/Adh/Pth)

Distal convoluted tubule

19

Na reabsorption and K excretion

Aldosterone

20

H20 reabsorption

Adh

21

Calcium reabsorption and Phosphate excretion

Pth

22

Collects the filtered urine
Drains to the minor calyx

Collecting tubules

23

Receives filtrate from collecting tubules

Minor calyx

24

Receives filtrate from minor calyx

Major calyx

25

Receives filtrate from the major calyx

renal pelvis

26

Brings urine towards ureter going to the bladder

Renal pelvis

27

Regulates the blood volume
- influences blood pressure and solutes

Juxtaglomerular apparatus

28

BQ: What are the cells responsible for TGF or tubuloglomerular feedback?

Macula densa cells of DCT

29

Detects NaCl concentration in DCT = ⬇️Blood volume = ⬇️ Urine output

Macula densa cells of DCT

30

Maximum capacity of bladder

500ml