Language Flashcards Preview

Pyschology > Language > Flashcards

Flashcards in Language Deck (79)
Loading flashcards...
1

what is language

a sysetmatic/local variation of a dialect that exhibitions identity and communicates thoughts

2

Clark & Clark Properties of Language (5)

1. communicative
2. arbitrary
3. structured
4. generative
5. dynamic

3

Hocketts 1963 "Features of language"; what are they

looked at how speech was structured

13 in total; 10-13 HUMAN SPECICIFIC

4

hockets human specific features of language

10. displacement
11. productivity
12. duality of patterning
13. cultural transimission

5

hockets non-human specific features of language (1-9)

1Vocal-auditory channel (Vocalization)
2Rapid fading (transitoriness)
3Broadcast Transmission
4Interchangeability
5Total feedback
6Specialization
7Semanticity
8Arbitrariness:
9Discreteness

6

Displacement

Communicating about things or events that are distant in time or space.

7

Discreteness:

Language can be said to be built up from discrete units (e.g.,
phonemes in human language). Exchanging such discrete units causes a change in
the meaning of a signal. This is an abrupt change, rather than a continuous change
of meaning.

8

Arbitrariness

There is an arbitrary relationship between a signal and its meaning.

That is, the signal is related to the meaning by convention or by instinct but has
no inherent relationship with the meaning.

9

Semanticitiy

There is a fixed relationship between a signal and a meaning.

10

Specialization:


Specialization: The signal produced is specialized for communication and is not the
side effect of some other behavior.

11

total feedback

The sender of a message also perceives the message. That is, you hear what you say.

12

interchangeatbility

All utterances that are understood can be produced.

13

Rapid fading (transitoriness)

Rapid fading (transitoriness): Signal last a short time. This is true of all systems
involving sound.

14

Vocal-auditory channel:

sounds emitted from the mouth and perceived by the
auditory system.

15

Duality of Patterning

Large numbers of meaningful signals (e.g., morphemes or
words) produced from a small number of meaningless units (e.g., phonemes). (we can recombine words into infinitite number of sentences)

16

Cultural Transmission

Each generation needs to learn the system of communication from the preceding generation.
(we arent born with it= its locally learned)

17

Producitivity

Language is an open system. We can produce potentially an infinite number of different messages by combining the elements differently. (create new meanings/utterances)

18

what does 'arbitrary' mean

the relationship between a symbol and what it means

19

what does 'structured' mean

how words, symbols are placed into strucutures to create meaning

20

'generative' means...

the ability to create new utterances all the time

21

dynamic aspect of lanauge

langauges changes among individuals/societiy

22

examples of animals with lanauge

1. stirling birds and regional songs
2. kanzi the chimp
3. alex the parrot
4. koko the goriila
5. dolphins and vocalizations

23

Kanzi the CHimp

undersatnd; but can't produce english

follows instructions (i.e. cuts onions) based on VOCAL siignals (researchers wears mask to prove this)

24

Alex the Parrot

exhibits displacement:
---> can responsd to questions but not describe/distinguish objects

25

what is recursion

the abiltiy to take a result of an operation and apply it infinetelty

26

signifiance of diplacement in brain damaged patients

people with aphasia: cant modify/apply multi-word utterances; only memorize them

27

what are the 6 levels of analyzing language

1. phonetics
2. phonology
3. morphology
4. semantics
5. grammar
6. pragmatics

28

what are phonetic

acousitistic properties of speech signals (sounds) we produce and the perception of those signals

involves: sound durations, content , melodies, vowels

29

what is phonology

the interpretation of speech sounds in a particular language and it deals with phoneme: the smallest unit of sound. (Translationg sounds to signals)

30

what is a phoneme

a 'meaning changing unit'

(pen vs pin): how simple differences shape speech perception