Flashcards in Language Deck (79)
what is language
a sysetmatic/local variation of a dialect that exhibitions identity and communicates thoughts
Clark & Clark Properties of Language (5)
Hocketts 1963 "Features of language"; what are they
looked at how speech was structured
13 in total; 10-13 HUMAN SPECICIFIC
hockets human specific features of language
12. duality of patterning
13. cultural transimission
hockets non-human specific features of language (1-9)
1Vocal-auditory channel (Vocalization)
2Rapid fading (transitoriness)
Communicating about things or events that are distant in time or space.
Language can be said to be built up from discrete units (e.g.,
phonemes in human language). Exchanging such discrete units causes a change in
the meaning of a signal. This is an abrupt change, rather than a continuous change
There is an arbitrary relationship between a signal and its meaning.
That is, the signal is related to the meaning by convention or by instinct but has
no inherent relationship with the meaning.
There is a fixed relationship between a signal and a meaning.
Specialization: The signal produced is specialized for communication and is not the
side effect of some other behavior.
The sender of a message also perceives the message. That is, you hear what you say.
All utterances that are understood can be produced.
Rapid fading (transitoriness)
Rapid fading (transitoriness): Signal last a short time. This is true of all systems
sounds emitted from the mouth and perceived by the
Duality of Patterning
Large numbers of meaningful signals (e.g., morphemes or
words) produced from a small number of meaningless units (e.g., phonemes). (we can recombine words into infinitite number of sentences)
Each generation needs to learn the system of communication from the preceding generation.
(we arent born with it= its locally learned)
Language is an open system. We can produce potentially an infinite number of different messages by combining the elements differently. (create new meanings/utterances)
what does 'arbitrary' mean
the relationship between a symbol and what it means
what does 'structured' mean
how words, symbols are placed into strucutures to create meaning
the ability to create new utterances all the time
dynamic aspect of lanauge
langauges changes among individuals/societiy
examples of animals with lanauge
1. stirling birds and regional songs
2. kanzi the chimp
3. alex the parrot
4. koko the goriila
5. dolphins and vocalizations
Kanzi the CHimp
undersatnd; but can't produce english
follows instructions (i.e. cuts onions) based on VOCAL siignals (researchers wears mask to prove this)
Alex the Parrot
---> can responsd to questions but not describe/distinguish objects
what is recursion
the abiltiy to take a result of an operation and apply it infinetelty
signifiance of diplacement in brain damaged patients
people with aphasia: cant modify/apply multi-word utterances; only memorize them
what are the 6 levels of analyzing language
what are phonetic
acousitistic properties of speech signals (sounds) we produce and the perception of those signals
involves: sound durations, content , melodies, vowels
what is phonology
the interpretation of speech sounds in a particular language and it deals with phoneme: the smallest unit of sound. (Translationg sounds to signals)