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Flashcards in Attention and Consciousness Deck (97)
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1

what does visuation attention classically infleunce

1. top down
2. bottom up

2

attention in a social context

presence of another person of a stimulus

1. aspirations, intentions, desires (cognitive STATE)

2. stimuluz, gaze direction, emotional expression and social identityt

3

what is social attention

a cognitive process determined by looking at another person

4

reciprocal social attention

when individuals mintor the success of an interaaction, identify problems and logalize errors

5

what is social attention useful for

interpersonal communication

succesful cooperation

human interdependence

6

what is gaze cuing

a facial stimuli that cues attention

7

Posners Spatial Cueing 1980

red dot on screen (non social condition)

tell participant that dog is where another person is looking (social conditiong)

in 'social condition' responses to target changed= magnitute of inhibition of return of effect is greater


'you react faster to stumili at an attended location'

8

what is attention

a selective mechanism that 'filers' the world to orient an individual to a limited number of events at any one time

9

why does selective attention exist

brain= limited capacity processor

so anatomy/physiology doesnt let unlimited processing of incormation (high energy costs/neuronal firing costs) + high compression of sensory infroamtion from retina

TOO MUCH DATA to process= hence attention system FILTERS external/internal processes to improve effiecency

10

General Gist of Micheal Posners Spatial Queing Paradigm

studies attentional performance by attracting attention + bringing it back to a target


Valid= (in the same place)= faster response

anywhere else in visual field= more slow

11

spatial selective experiment

visual attention focused on a task at hand (reading accuraetly) to point that she doesnt realize all words are turining into x

12

what 2 mechanisms directs visual selective attention

1. saliency (bottom 'up')
2. relevancy ('top down relevant')

13

what is relevancy ('top down relevant') attention

a purposeful and goal oriented mechanism known as endogenous attention

14

how does attention change neural activity

it imporves the signal to noise raito in sensory systems---> makes stimuli more salient and increases the neural activity as a result

15

Egly, Driver and Rafal Experiment

attention is OBJECT selective:
1. spatial location not everything as visual attention cares more about OBJECTS

16

what is 'inhibition of return'

Posners idea: 'ability to reenage attention to a location previously attended is compromised due to bias towards novel locations'

17

what is selective attention

focusining consciousness on a specific or gorup of stimulius

18

cocktail party effect

focusing on 1 conversation in a noisy party but responding to when you hear your name (spotlights change and are selective)

19

what is inattensional blindness

through selectivity becoming unaware to other stmiulu (like a gorilla in a football game or magicians using misdirection)

20

change blindness

psychological phenomena in which we fail to notice a change in an environment

21

examples of change blindness


('person swap experiment') or ('failure to notices things= false eye witness testimonies in court)

22

social 'attribution theory'

we can explaint someones behaviour by creditng their stable/enduring traits/the stituation oat hand

(disposition and situational)

23

fundamental attribution area

when we understatime the situation (context) and overestimate the personal disposition

24

what did leon festinger come up with

theory of cognitive dissonance

25

cognitive dissonance

we're uncomfortable when our thoughts/believs/behaviours are inconsistent with each other

26

william james 1890; what did he do

investigated the mind scientifically (looked at consciousness as a continiously moving stream)

27

types of attention

selective
divded
sustained
execeutive

28

what is phenmenology

describes the state of interests

29

how is information processed

filtered from external and internal processes

30

what are filtering biases

we are less aware of world around us than we think as we filter the more relevant/salient/notictable things to be efficient