Introduction to Psychology Flashcards Preview

Pyschology > Introduction to Psychology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction to Psychology Deck (41)
Loading flashcards...
1

what is pyschology

the scientific study of behaviour of overt and internal activities of an organism

2

historical disciplines

philosophy + physiology

3

previous historical interpretations of pyschology

1. Egyptians= heart as the organ of reasoning

2. Greek philosophers= artisostolte thought heart was center of intelligence adn theat the brain cooled blood

3. Up untill the Renaissance= human heart believed to be where the mind is

4

evidence used to justify historical intepretations of pyschology

if heart center= death by injury there

emotional responses 'felt' in the chest'

many capillariies in head for 'cooling blood'

5

Plato

mind+ body dualism (mind controls body)

6

what is cartesian dualism

mutual interaction between mind and body occurs in the pineal gland

7

decartes

body as 'interface for the soul'

8

matieralism

all mental phenomena can be explaiend in physical terms

psych= studied scientifiically

9

positivism

regonize only positive facts and observable phenomena (according to comte)

10

empiricism

sensory experiences are the source of all knowleudge


locke, hume + tabula rasa

11

Hermann Von Holtz influences on pyschology

investigated the speed of neural impulses (siginifance ot TIME in study of perception)

12

Ernst Weber influences on pyschology

smallest diference can be noticed between 2 stimuli is relative and not absolute (we adapt conetxtually)

i.e. relative brightness of a light in a room

13

Gustac Feschner influences on pyschology

he developed pyschophysics; measured the efects of changes in the physical world in their relation to perception

14

what is Phrenoology and how does it contribute to pyschology

Franz Gall: a pseudoscience suggesting a link between personalities and the morphoplogy of the brain

it suggests that the brain is an organ of the mind with localized functions

15

what is functional localization

The idea that different parts of the brain do different things

16

examples of famous cases of functional localization

Paul Broca + Brocas Aphasia+ Patient Tan
Phigneas Gage
Wernicke

17

structurualism

deconstruction of sensory processes into the consitutet elements

18

william wundt

developed structuralism in Leipzig University

he used introspection to study mental state (not v scientific)

19

behaviorism

developed in response to 'non-scientific' disciplines in the USA; all behaviour can be reduced to a stimulus-response association and should be studied objectively as it is the only observabe/controlalble/measurable thing

20

John Watson

developed Behaviourism by focsing on pyschology as an objective science

21

examples of other behaviourist

Skinner and Pavlov

22

cognitive pyschology

- 1950s; created in response to oversimplicaition of behaviourism
- inferences of mental procesees by objecive study of behaviour
- sees brain as a 'computer' (input to storage to output)

23

computaitonal pyschology

subdiscioplince of cognitive pyschology
looks at 'selfridge-nesser pattern recognition machine' or 'brain preception stimuli'

24

cognitive neuroscience

investiages neural processes in cognition using techniques such as neuroimagine (fmri, eeg, meg, pet)

25

how does pyschology defy the common sense view

1. findings of studies SOMETIMES unexpected
2. peoples views often reflect their OWN experinces instead of objective reality (CONFIRMATION BIAS)

26

aim of the scientific method

aims to establish lawful relationships in objective study

27

process of scientific method

objective/goal-> theory-> hypothesis-> experiment-> observation

if observation supports experiment= replicate

if observation doesn't support experiment= revise hypothesis/theory

28

theories MUST be..

1. testable (explicit and clear)
2. falsifiable (karl popper)= finding events where hyopthesis can be wrong

29

falsiability and freud

freuds ideas= aren't falsiable as he used observation (went directly to obsrevation as opposed to starting with a theory)

case= his studies of unconscious and conscious minds influencing behaviour in pyschoanalysis

30

6 steps to designing an experiment

1. state the question/hypothesis
2. identify the independent variable
3. identify the dependent variable
4. identify the control and confounds
5. identify the populatin/subjects of study
6. determine how you will analyze the data