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Flashcards in Perception Deck (76)
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1

3 aspects of perception

- not hieriarchal
- is the interpretation of sensations to make sense of environment
-depends on contextual cuex

2

colour constancy

how we percieve coour changes depending on illumination, contrast, etc

3

depth perception

shape
concentrationg
shading
concavity

(HOW WE SEE 3D OBJECTS IN RETINAS 2D STATE)

4

expectaions affect on perception

previous experience and knowledge of the world infleunces how we see things; especially in ambigious situations

5

the brain and perception

integrates information from different sensory modalities to produce and interpret

6

mcgurk effect

multi-sensory perception effect where ther eis a conflict between VISUAL and AUDITORY information

e.g. V vs D vs B mouth shape and sound

7

ventriloquist effect

a multi-sensory perception effect where visual adn audodoration LOCALIZISATIOn conflicgts;
illusion of thinking sound comes from a dummy even though location of sound is from ventrioloquist

8

Berman and Weich 1976 experiment

method= played a beep and a flash of light from differet locations and had participants point to where they think the sound came from

results= localization of sound dragged the light

9

perception as inference

visual system crates accruate, detailed and 3D percpetp frion small, tiny 2d retinal images

10

how to study perception

1. how receptors carry electrical signals using action potentials (raw data)


2. how our perspection is subjective and changes contextually (interpreation in the brain)

11

what is sensation

raw data processed by sensory rerecptors sch as eyes, ears, nose, etc [bottom up]

12

what is perception

how sensations are processsed and interpreted into the brain [top down]

13

why do our eyes prefer visual over auditory information

because visual information is more precise than our ears (evolutionary tendency towards vision)

14

prosopagnosia

neurological disorder that impairs a persons ability to perceive FACES

15

what is damaged in prosopagnosia

the frusiform gyrus (face recognition area)

16

parallel processing

processing multiple things at once (depth, colour, etc)

17

what are perceptual sets

pyschological factors determing how we perceive our environment

18

what does the v1 detect

orientation/direction

19

v1 cortical simple cells

oblong reeptive fields to detect tild/directions at specific locations
combine input from multiple ganglion cells

20

v1 complex cortical cells

correspond to SEPCIFIC tilt/direction ANYWHERE in RF

21

v1 hypercomplex cortical cells

correspond to particular tilt/direction AND ENDS of a line

22

retinotopic organization of v1

left to right and right to lef corresponded
v1 is organized into 'maps' that correspond to each other

23

how was cross processining discovred

bullet wounds in soldiers; they could not see SPECIFIC parts in a visual field due to lesions in that area (left or right)

24

what are blobs

segegrated processing of colour

25

mach band illusiosn

different brightness bands that contribute to seeing edges as off center/on center cells either fire or illuminate

26

on centre cells and light

if light covers center= lot sof neuron firing
if light in surroundings= inhibition of firiting
if light in BOTH centre and periphery= some firing

27

centre surround opponency

occurs in LGN cells= lgn cells change firing rate MOST when they encounter changes in an image to detec edges

28

why are edges important

correspond to important things (otlines)
recognize objects
used even in computer vision (edge detection algorithims)

29

dorsal stream: what for

CONTROL of behaviour ("WHERE/HOW")

30

ventral stream; what for

CONSCIOUS perception (THE "WHAT)