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Flashcards in Developmental Pysch Deck (103)
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1

Definition of Developmental Psychology

aims to explain how children and adults change over time (socially and pyschologically)

2

History: 1700

children were seen as 'mini-adults'; only quantitavely different

3

History: Enlightenment

John Locke + JJ Rouseau: children development studied

4

History: 1800's

Charles Darwin + Evolutionary Theory: adaptation, change, variation and individual differences

5

Industrial Revolution + 19th-century history

Childhood literary and education begins to be studied

6

The 1920s History

Dev Pysch becomes a scientific dicisiplines; hwoever broken into 'nature' vs 'nurture' aspects

7

20th Century + Now (HIstory)

- nature + nurture brought together
- 'all encompassing' study of development from childhood to adulthood (holistic) as whole life span deevelopment is studied

8

Who was Jean Piaget

a swiss scientists studied logical thinking in children from biological roots and came up with his '4 stages of development' theory

9

John Locke

NURTURE; childs mind is a 'tabula rasa' at birth that sponges up experience

10

JJ Rousseau

NATURE: child develops due to a preconditioned biology

11

Genetic Epistemology Theory (2)

Piaget's points of how knowledge is acquired in children:

1. children are active agents in learning

2. intellectual development is an evolutionary process occuring in progressive statges of intellectual development (each is fixed + invariant)

12

4 stages of Cognitive Development

1. Sensory Motor
2. Pre-Operational
3. Concrete Operational
4. Formal Operational

13

What happens in the Sensorimotor Stage

Birth- 2 years old

End: Object Permanence is Acquired After

Child:
- uses senses and motor skills
- beings to know items by their use

14

What happens in the Pre-Operational Stage

2- 6 years old
End: Imagination/Experience grows and Chidl Decenters View

Child:
- symbolic thinking
- language acquired
- ecocentrism

15

What happens in the Concrete-Operational Stage

7-11 Years

End: conservation, matthematical thinking and classification, ideas

Child:
- logic applications
- some objectivity
- informal interpretation
- concrete thought to real life

16

What happens in the Formal Operational STage

12 years- Adulthood

End: acwuire ethics, politics and social/moral interests


Child:
- think abstractly
- hypothethical ideas
- broader issues engaged with

17

Theories of Development (5)

Piaget

Vygotsky

Erikson

Bowly and Ainsworth

Bronfenbrenner

18

How did Piaget study object permanence

Placed a screen before a 6 month year old baby; showed the object 'didnt exist' unless the baby saw it

19

What was Piagets 'A not B' Task

2 cloths and an objec:
researcher places an object under a cloth-> baby grasps for that cloth

then:
reseracher moves object to another cloth-> baby still goes for original cloth as existence of toy was dependent on its own actions

20

How did Piaget study Conservation

he asked a 6 year old if playdought ofo the same size/shape was the same amount

then changed the shape of one of the playdoughs in front of the child

child in pre-operational stage would say that the changed object is of a higher quanitity

21

Piagets 'building blocks of thinking'

- mental schemes guide actions that aid in working through an issue/novel situation

work by:

Assimiliation-> equilibrium (set of rules)--> novel situation (rules dont apply)--> disequilibirum--> acocmodation

- feedback kloop from environment changes shemes to adapt to new situations allowing for the accomodation of learning to occur

22

Butterworth Criticisms of Piaget

Critiqued his idea that babies are egocentric.

Babies follow where mom is looking= which shows that the undersatnd the mom sees somethign they dont

23

Donaldson critique of Piaget

Found children COULD conserve earlier than piaget predicted:

1. changed the playdought tasks by changing the way the researcher asked the question:

---> used a 'helper teddy' that 'changed the playdough'

Donaldson attributed that a child expects a change when researcher asks a question which influences their answer

24

Lev Vygotsky: what did he do/study

looked at the role of language in human society/thought

was a social 'constructivist'; looked at how culture/society infleunces development

developed theory of scafolldly (kinds mind grows by interating with social elements and by paenting)

25

Theory of Zone of Proximanal Development

By Vygotsky; supposed that culture/society/environment influence social itneractions, speech and language

language and development important to how you structure your thought

26

Who was Erikson

looked at how individuals resolve pyschosocial conflicts to adjust to environment throughout LIFE SPAN

27

Theory of Psychosocial Development

the hollistic development (from cradle to grave); Erikson broke it into stages

we go through different 'stages' i nlife wherer are personatlities develop (they are pre-determine and progressive)

i.e. trust and mistrust in infancy or identity/role confusion in adolscence

Final stages are intertritgy and despair, stagnation, identity and isolation

28

Who was John Bowlby

studied the special role of social relationships between parents/children in forming personality and mental wellbeing

used animal studies and modern research and traditional psychoanalysis to conduct his studies

bomined cognitive rsearch with biology and traditional pyschoanalysis (piaget and darwin and freud)

29

attachment theory general gist

socio-emotional individual development is influenced by early experiences in childhood/infancy

1. John Bowlby: studied mother-infant bond
2. Mary Ainsworth: tested mother-infant bond
3. Lorenz studied Imprinting

30

Lorenz Imprinting Theory 1935

ethnologist looked at how we're biologically prepared for life;

looked at how goslings imprint to an object early in life;

used wellington boots to test this theory

found limits of imprinting= a critical window whereby the goslings lose the ability to imprint a few hours after birth