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Flashcards in Motivations and Emotions Deck (150)
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definition of motivation

driving force for intaition, perssistance and goal-directed behaviour

the need/desire to do something


levels of motivation

- immediate need
- long term need (goals, careers)
- physiological


what is a drive

simplification of stimulu-response relationship whereby a behaviour is innitiated


(6) theories of emotion?

1. Instinct Theory

2. Pyschodynamic Theory

3. Incentive Theory

4. Drive-Reduction Theory

5. Arousal Theory

6. Humanistic Theory


example of stimulus-response

stimulus= indepdnent; water deprivation

response= dependent= drinking water

the motivation= thirst for drinking


what theories are internal predictors of behaviour

drive reduction theory
arousal theory


what theories are external predictors of behaviour

incentive theory


which theories are both internal and external predictors of behaviour

huanistic theories such as Maslows


Instinct Theory

1980 William James:
all behaviour can be explained by innate instincts

evolutionary perspective; complex unlearned behaviours with fixe patterns in species


Pyschodynamic theory

1920 Freud: motivation is the battle between pleasure and death that drives behaviour


why is instinct theory not useful today

- doesnt explain external motiators or influences on behaviour such as culture or sociality


Incentive Theory:

behaviours are reinforced by previous experiences of rewards and punishments

proposed by: Skinner 1940


Drive-Reduction Theory

behavioural drives are a state of tension caused by internal imbalances aiming to achieving equillibgirum

homeostatic/hydraulic model

by Hull 1943


Arousal Theory

behavioural drives result from arousal levels being above/below optimum hence we either are exicted/calm to achieve neutrality

by Hebb and Thompson 1954


what does arousal theory explain

why we might seek 'senstation' seeking activities (like sky diving)


Humanisitc Theory

we week to maximised satifaction and personal pleasure in a hierarchial structure of needs/stages; focuses on positive motives as opposed to defects

proposed by Maslow in the 1960s


example of how drive-reduction theory works


having a 'set point' and 'error dectection' margins that issue autonomic responses to regulate body processes such as temperature, energy levels, hormones, etc.



processes that maintain an internal equillibrium


what key brain area plays a role in drive eduction theory

The hypothalmus--> it maintains homestostatis (body temp control, hormones, etc )


evidence for drive reduction theory

1. Glucostatic Theory and Experiments

2. biologitical and intutive

3. adult body weight remains relatively constant


evidence against drive reduction theory (6)

1. binge eating (like at christmas; uncontrollable eating regardles of hunger)
2. eating disorders
3. consuming high E foods (red bull) before eating doesnt reduce eating
4. obesity epidemic
5. patient RH= a man who forgot to eat
6. doesnt address taste, learnign, visual cues/social norms (external factors) influencing hunger/eating


what influences what we eat

1. decreased nutritive density of a diet (calories per unit)

2. sensory specific satiety (taste)

3. social infleunces (i.e. eating with others)

4. serving size (misleading visual cues)

5. (sometimes) major energy deficits; but not a factor in captilistic/food filled societies


Warsink 2005 Study

soup eating:
1. normal bowls
2. self-refilling bowls

people with self-refilling bowls eat 73% more than people with normal bowls= implies serving size is a avisual cue for satiety


Minnesotta Starvation Experiment 1944

young men starve by experiments to figure out how to treat famine victims of war:


1. Food became an obsession (reading cook books, planning)

2. sexual drives dminished, weak bones, anxious and depression

3. feeling sof guilt/binge eating food (eating disorders)


UCSD University Study 2015

people with anexorisa= feel less 'reward' when given food= hence HUNGER is not an incentive to eat


what can homeo-static theories not account for

hunger and other motiations caused by extenral cues;

other motivation such as sex, love, money making and approval have no clear 'set-point'


Glucostatic Theory of Hunger

by Mayer in 2005: experiments on lab animals whereby reducing the blood sugar in lab animals (rats) through insulin injrectsiont hen increases the animals eating

this is because the hypothalmsus acts on the glucoreceptors or thermoreceptors (blood sugar reculators) to incentivize hunger/eating


why is hunger used as an example for drive reduction theory

as hunger= is a consequenc eof energy deficit due to low gluclose levels and need to stabailize body fat levels which the hypothalamus regulates


what does the incentive theory account for

non physiologial motivations and rewards for behaviour


olds and milner 1954 experiment

they identified the brains reward center accidnetally, after trying to identify how to make rats emotionally uncomfortable:

--> placed electrodes in rats brain and stimulated areas
--> the rat learned to return over and over again to a lever in a cage [positive reinforecement]

when rats given opportunity to 'self adminisniter' stimulations= they pressed the lever over 700 times in an hour preferring the lever over food, water and exhaustion