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Flashcards in Measurement Techniques Deck (51)
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1

3 categories of measuring pyschology

1. behavioural
2. neuropysiological
3. psychophysiological

2

types of behavioural techniques

conditiniong
questtionatires
animal tests
cognitive tests
puschophysics
infants and habituation

3

types of neurophsyioloical techniques

lesion studies
MRi, Pet, TMS
EEG MEG TMS
CT
X ray

4

types of psychophysiological techniques

galvanic skin conductance
salivdary hormones
eye tracking
electrocardiography

5

what are electrophysiological readings

microelectrodes are placed into monkey/cat/mice brains to record neural activitiy

usually involves surfering on an animal where an area is removed and the electrodes are placed

6

what are electrophysiological readings used for

measurements of the electrical activity of neurons, and, in particular, action potential activity

used to record responses to stimuli that affect rate of neronal firing near electrode

used to map brain's sensory somatic cortex using electrical stimulation to see how the body responds

7

advatnges of electrophysiological readings

direct recording of neural activity

high spatial resolution

high temporal resolution

8

disadvantages of electrophysiological readings

invasive= unethical to use on humans

looks at SINGLe neurons but not networks

difficult to study complex tasks as its mono-functional

9

when can electrophysiological readings be used on humans

cancer patients where tumor removal occurs

10

types of lesions

1. aspiration lesions
2. radiofrequency lesions
3. knife cuts
4. reversible lesions

11

aspiration lesions

Skin lesion aspiration is the withdrawal of fluid from a skin lesion (cortical tissue) and insert stimuli= accessible to eyes and instruments of sureons

12

radiofrequency lesions

using radiofrequency currents that pass through target tissue

13

knife cuts

elimiante conductinos in nerve tracts

14

reversible lesions

temporary eliminate activity in a brian area using anaestehthic or cooling

15

what do lesions allow

insights into brain functional organization

16

famous lesion cases

1. brocas area (non-fluent aphasia)
2. wernickes area (fluent aphasia)
== anoatmication language dissociations

17

pros of lesion studies

establish cause-effect of brain area and function

noninvasive (but patients might tire from experiments)

18

cons of lesion studies

no two lesions same (not common; inaccurate)
damage widespread
damage may effect other cognitive abilities
platicity of brain (hence changes might result of function-area; i.e. stroke tennis player)

19

what (in humans) is used to study pyschophysiological activity

eeg= electroencephalography

20

set-up of EEGs

measures electrical signals by placing electrode 'swimming cap' onto patients head + weakly measure neural activity passing through skull

- measures different wave variations (alpha, beta, etc.) aand their length/speed

21

what are ERPs

event related potentials: other factors such as noise that can affect an EEG reading and create signals

as a result= signals are averaged to reduce 'background' noise

22

what do EEGS measure

electircal signals and brain activity/consciousness

23

what is N170

a type of Event Related Potential: evidence for face slectivity in human brain as 170ms after a negative face stimuli elecits a response

24

pros of EEG

high temporal resolution (up to 1 ms)
non inavsive
can even be used on infants
cheaper than fMRI

25

cons of EEG

poor spatial resolution
infiinte possiblities for what aused a wave
can only measure weak signals from neurons in specific orietnations
no causal inference
synchronous firings of neurons can sometimes make it hard to find a measurable signal

26

Magnetoencephaolography (MEG) set up

magenetic fields placed into brain
expensive than EEG
weak
provides high spatial resolution/3D images

27

what do PET scans do

branin imagies= identify active brain areas used radioactive markers that indicate 'active' brain areas (glucose consumption= conecentraion)

allows the measurment of moleculers using radioative ligands to study addiction/parkinsons/ etc and how brain responds to reward allocation


(radioative fluorodeyoxguclose insterd into brain and taken up by energy consumping scelles which a Pet scan measures)

28

pros of pet scans

measures specific molecule concentraitons
spatial resolution better than an EEG
can imagine whole brain
provide FUNCTIONAL brain images

29

cons of pet scan

invasive (radioactive tracesr)

no clear anatomical linkages

poor temporal resolution

no causal inference

30

what techniques are used for structural brain imaging

fMRI
DTI
MRi