Decision Making Flashcards Preview

Pyschology > Decision Making > Flashcards

Flashcards in Decision Making Deck (51)
Loading flashcards...
1

dual process theory definition

there there are 2 distinct ways/dichotomous ways of thinkign:
i.e. reason v emotion or human v animal thought

2

what does modern theory regarding decision making look at

doesnt contrast reason/emotion

looks at INTITUIVE and REASON-BASED thought processes

3

Old Type 1 Caterogizations (10)

autonomous
fast
parallel
affect-laden
contextualized
associative
evolved early
similar to animals
bias
non-concious

4

Old Type 2 Caterogizations (10)

requires working memory
slow
serial
affect-free
abstract
rule based
evolved late
only humans
normative
concsious

5

old catergoies of type 1/2 that have evidences

type 1= is autonomous
type 2- requires working memory

6

old caterogies of type 1/2 with SOME evidence

type 1= is fast and parallel

type 2= is slow and serial

7

which old categories of type 1 and 2 are 100% wrong

1. evolved late/early
2. restricted to humans/nonhumans
3. normative/biased
3. non-conscious/conscious

8

where is working memory localised

pre-frontal cortex

9

what is working memory

stores information from short term procsses and then writes it into long-term memory

(from temporrary storage to information manipulation to focused attention)

10

revised concepts of type 1 and type 2 thought processes

type 1= input to ouput (reactionary); more like a 'computer' network

type 2= storage + processing + working memory

11

what is probabilistic reasoning

using logic and probability to handle uncertain situations.

An example of probabilistic reasoning is using past situations and statistics to predict an outcome.

12

who were Tversky and Kahneman and what did they do

behavioural economists who used the linda experiment blurb to understand probablitistic reasoning and developed the conjunction rule

13

Linda Experiment Blurb

Participants were given a blurb about linda's background (grew up in a socio-economic poor condition) ann then asked if she was more likely to be a bank teller
or a bank teller active in a feminist movement



14

results of Linda Experiment

80% of people believed it was more plausible for linda to be both a bank teller and active in a feminist movevement

this is problematic reasonining as due to the conjuncture rule; she can't be more one than the other as they are both within the same caterogy

15

Kahnemanns argument about linda

argued that people used a 'short cut' to answer questions based on associating her past experiences

'thinking fast and slow'

16

what is the conjunction rule

Calculates the probability of two (or more) events BOTH happening.

When the events are independent of each other, P(B given A)=P(B) and this conjunction rule reduces to the restricted one

17

Deneys 2006 Experiment aim

revised Kahnemans experiment to see if the 2 responses fit better into Type 1 or Type 2 thinking

18

Deneys 2006 Experiment Process

looked at the TAPPING response speed of the participants in revised Linda Experiment

lowered the working memory load when patients were occupied with the tapping tasks; so more time was spent thinking

19

Deneys 2006 Experiment Findings

less time for workin memory tow work results in FASTER INCORRET responses

Slower responses when occupied with secondary tasks provised correct answer to question

20

What is deductive reasoning

a form of reasoning where a conclusion is drawn from 2 presmises

uses syllogisms

21

example of a syllogism

'Socrates is a man; all men are mortal. Socrates is a mortal'

22

Who studied deductive reasoning

Evans, Barston and Pollard
Deneys
Goel and Dolan

23

Evans, Barston and Pollard Study Task Aim and Method

Logical Validity Task: whether logical validity (conclusion) follows the premises to the believability of a conclusion


studied syllogisms by showing participants in a study 4 syllogisms:

1. valid and believable= correct statetment
2. valid and unbelievable= correct statetmen
3. invalid but believable= incorrect statetmen
4. invalid and unbelieable= incorrect statetmen

24

Findings of Evans, Barston and Pollard Study Task

1. valid and believable= 84% correct answers
2. valid and unbelievable= 56% correct answers
3. invalid but believable= 71% correct answers
4. invalid and unbelieable= 10% correct answers


25

Second part of Evans Experiment

the Rapid Response test= a 10 second time restriction placed on Logical Validity Task and compared to free time patipants

== this restricts time to 'intuitive reaction' resulting in much more incorrect respones given to statements

26

Flaws of Evans, Barston and Pollard Study Task ( Logical Validity Task)

1. statements were filled with double negatives (confusing)
2. realistically more than 10 seconds is needed to thinkin about something

27

Denys 2006 Version of Logical Validity Task

lowered the 'working memory load' of evans experiment by having patients memorize high load/lowload patterns in a grid and then to reproduce them after the questions were asked

28

Findings of Denys Version of the Logical Validity Task

decrease accuracy when high low situation
less acceptance of valid unbelievable/more acceptance of invalid believable statements

so people gave more INTUITIVE responses

29

Flaws of Denys Version of the Logical Validity Task

people might just be responding by chance/randomly (not using thought processes)

30

Goel and Dolan Task

Conducted the Logical Validity Task and used fMRi to localize T1/T2