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Flashcards in Mood Disorders Deck (134)
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1

Symptoms of Depression (9)

1. daily low mood
2. diminished interested in activities (anhedonia)
3. changes in apetite/weight (more than 5% body weight)
4. sleep disturance (insominia and hypersomnia)
5. agitation/retardatdation (activity change; slowing down/speeding up)
6. fatigue and energy less
7. concentration/decision making issue
8. guilt/wortheless ness
9. sucididality

2

DSM Diagnosis if Major Mood Disorder

Symptoms must last for at least 2 weeks
Patients must have more than 5 symptoms (including 1 and 2)

1 and 2 are; depressed daily mood + anhedonia

3

Types of Mood Disorders

depressive disorder
bipolar disorder

4

What is a Mood DIstorder

a pyschological disorder chractersized by distrubances in the mood

5

Pre-History Concept of Depression

hippocratus coins 'melancholia'

6

17 Century Concept of Depression

Robert Burton tries to estalish 'science' behind depression and identify strategies to treat it

7

18-19 Century Concept of Depression

Johann Heinroth; associates depression with spiritualism; i.e. a distrubance of the soul

8

Early 20 Century Concept of Depression

Kraeplin: sees 'endogenous' and 'exogeneous' types where internal and external driven personalities exist

Freud= mourning and melancholia foster this

9

Mid 20 Century Concept of Depression

DMS first established & developed as antidepresseds and depresssed neurons studied

10

21st Century Concept of Depression

DMS-V 5 at the moment

11

Prevalance of Depression?

- common (4.4% of the population)
- 1 in 5 people have it at one point in their lives
- it afffects women more than men
- it affects adolscents and old people
- its high in conflict countries

12

Depressive Disorder is compose dof...

major mood disorder (MDD)
dysthymia (mild depression)

13

Biloplar Disorder is composed of...

severe bipolar disorder (mania and dperessive cycle)
cyclothymia (mild)

14

What is a comorbidity

symptoms overlapping/asssociating with depression

the presence of one or more additional conditions co-occurring with a primary condition

15

what commorbidities are there

anxiety

substance abuse

schrizophenia

medical issues; depression, cancer, hypertension, anorexia nervosa

16

Prognosis( treatement) for depression: how succesful?

- usually depressive peisodes last 3-6 months and most people recover within 12

- however high reccurence risk

-27% end up with chronic depressive disorder + don't recover

17

Effects of Mood Disorders on an Individual Level

physical health
quality of life

higher risk for other medical conditions

higher mortality rate (suicide)

18

Effects of Mood Disorders on Collective Level

society and economy= depressed people x7 more likely to be unemployed (hard to function/work)

leading cause of diability with economic impacts

19

What is pathophysiology

The branch of science dealing with mental processes, particularly as manifested by abnormal cognitive, perceptual, and intellectual functioning, during the course of mental disorders

(Looking at potential causes)

20

public perception of depression

71% link it to emotional weakness

65% link it to bad parenting

35% link it to sin

10% attribute it to chemical imblanace in brain

21

list the possible causes of depression (8)

1. genetic causes
2. monoamine hypothesis
3. neuroplasticity theory
4. brain changes
5. cortisol levels
6. inflammation
7. personality
8. environment

22

Genetic Causes of Depression: Explain

(Genes= predispotiion to depression)

1. FAMILSTU DIES
family studies show MDD is moderatly heritable:

1st degree kin are 3 times more likely to develop it if in family history


2. TWIN STUDIES (KENDLER)
identitical twins= if one has it the other is 46% likely to also have it

fraternal twins= only 20%

23

Monoamine Hypothesis: Explan

'depression is caused by reduced monoamine (Neurotransmitter) levels such as seratonin, nonadrenaline and dopamine that play a role in mood, cognition and anxiety levels

24

Evidence for Monoamine Hypothesis

--> DRUGS that treat MDD such as seratonint reuptake inhibitotrs (SSRi) or tricyclic antidepressants elevant monoamines

- in 1950; reserpine (a hypertension drug): lowered monoamine and triggered depression

25

Critique of Monamine Hypothesis

1. not all anti-depressants are effective in all patients

2. depression is complex (not just because of monamine imblanace

3. monoamine levels increase after treatment but it might take several weeks for mood to actually improve (prolonged effective-ness= means its hard to be accurate)

26

what does nonadrenaline do

for:
- alertness
- concentration
- energy
- mood
- cognition
- sex drive
- anxiety + irritability

27

what does dopomaine do

for:
-- pleasure and reward
- appetitie
- drive and motivation
- sex drive
- mood
-cognition

28

What does seratonin do

for:
- obessesions
- anixety
- compulsions
- irribabilitiy
- memory
- appeite
-mood
-cognition

29

Neuroplasticity Theory of Depression

Our brain is plastic= so neurogensis is maybe impairted in depressed patients

30

ontogenesis of depression

low in childhood (1-2%)

rises in adoscelence (>4%): hormones

high in later life (15%) as eldery peopel more isolated/deterioriating